UN experts condemn sentencing of Reuters journalists

UN experts condemn sentencing of Reuters journalists

GENEVA (3 September 2018) – UN experts strongly condemned today’s sentencing of two Reuters journalists to seven years imprisonment.

Journalists Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo were sentenced to seven years imprisonment on 3 September by a court in Yangon for breaching a law on state secrets, following their reporting on Rakhine State.

“The sentencing of Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo is a dark moment for Myanmar,” said David Kaye, Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, and Yanghee LeeSpecial Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar.

“This is yet another clear signal of Myanmar’s distancing from international human rights law. We regret that the court failed to recognise the importance of independent journalism, freedom of expression and the public’s right to know.

“We urge the President to pardon the journalists, and if the case is appealed, for the court to take into account Myanmar’s human rights obligations and order their release,” the experts said.

The Special Rapporteurs previously have expressed their grave concerns, and urged greater press freedom after the journalists’ detention.


 *The UN experts: Ms. Yanghee Lee, Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmarand Mr. David KayeSpecial Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression

 The Special Rapporteurs are part of what is known as the Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council. Special Procedures, the largest body of independent experts in the UN Human Rights system, is the general name of the Council’s independent fact-finding and monitoring mechanisms that address either specific country situations or thematic issues in all parts of the world. Special Procedures’ experts work on a voluntary basis; they are not UN staff and do not receive a salary for their work. They are independent from any government or organization and serve in their individual capacity.

 For more information and media requests please contact:

Ms. Marina Narvaez (+41-22917 9615/mnarvaez@ohchr.org) or Ms. Azin Tadjdini (+41 22 917 9400 / atadjdini@ohchr.org) or write to freedex@ohchr.org.

 For media inquiries related to other UN independent experts:
Jeremy Laurence, UN Human Rights – Media Unit (+ 41 22 917 9383 / 

 This year is the 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the UN on 10 December 1948. The Universal Declaration – translated into a world record 500 languages – is rooted in the principle that “all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.” It remains relevant to everyone, every day. In honour of the 70th anniversary of this extraordinarily influential document, and to prevent its vital principles from being eroded, we are urging people everywhere to Stand Up for Human Rightswww.standup4humanrights.org

Statement attributable to the Spokesman for the Secretary-General on Myanmar

Statement attributable to the Spokesman for the Secretary-General on Myanmar

The Secretary-General takes note with concern of the conviction and sentencing today in Myanmar of journalists Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo to seven years of imprisonment. He urges the authorities to review their decision.

The right to freedom of expression and information is a cornerstone of any democracy. It is unacceptable that these journalists were prosecuted for reporting on major human rights violations against the Rohingya in Rakhine State.

The Secretary-General will continue to advocate for the release of the journalists. He calls for full respect of freedom of the press and all human rights in Myanmar.

Stephane Dujarric, Spokesman for the Secretary-General

New York, 3 September 2018

Bookmark the Spokesperson’s website: http://www.un.org/sg/en/spokesperson

Comment by UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet on the conviction of two Reuters journalists in Myanmar,

Comment by UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet on the conviction of two Reuters journalists in Myanmar,

 Geneva, 3 September 2018

“I urge Myanmar to immediately and unconditionally release Kyaw Soe Oo and Thet Oo Maung*, the two Reuters journalists who were today sentenced to seven years’ imprisonment on charges of violating the ill-defined Official Secrets Act.

Their coverage of the Inn Din massacre by the military – for which the military subsequently admitted responsibility – was clearly in the public interest as it may otherwise never have come to light. Their conviction follows a legal process that clearly breached international standards. It sends a message to all journalists in Myanmar that they cannot operate fearlessly, but must rather make a choice to either self-censor or risk prosecution.

I call for their conviction to be quashed and for them to be released, along with all other journalists currently in detention for their legitimate exercise of the right to freedom of expression.”

The UN Human Rights Office will in the coming days issue a report on the worrying state of freedom of expression in Myanmar, with a number of recommendations for legal and policy reform.


* Kyaw Soe Oo is also known as Moe Aung. Thet Oo Maung is also known as Wa Lone.

For more information and media requests, please contact: Rupert Colville – + 41 22 917 9767 / rcolville@ohchr.org or Ravina Shamdasani – + 41 22 917 9169 / rshamdasani@ohchr.org or Liz Throssell – + 41 22 917 9466 / ethrossell@ohchr.org 

2018 is the 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the UN on 10 December 1948. The Universal Declaration – translated into a world record 500 languages – is rooted in the principle that “all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.” It remains relevant to everyone, every day. In honour of the 70thanniversary of this extraordinarily influential document, and to prevent its vital principles from being eroded, we are urging people everywhere to Stand Up for Human Rightswww.standup4humanrights.org.


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အရြယ္မေရာက္မီ စစ္မႈထမ္းေဆာင္ေနသူ ကေလးသူငယ္ႏွင့္ လူငယ္ (၇၅)ဦးအား ျမန္မာ့တပ္မေတာ္မွ ႏႈတ္ထြက္ခြင့္ျပဳ

ရန္ကုန္၊ ၂၀၁၈ခုႏွစ္၊ ၾသဂုတ္လ (၃၁)ရက္ – ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေတာ္အစိုးရမွ တပ္မေတာ္တြင္ အရြယ္မတိုင္မီ စစ္မႈ ထမ္းေဆာင္ေနသည့္ ကေလးသူငယ္ (၇၅)ဦးအား ယေန႔ႏႈတ္ထြက္ခြင့္ ျပဳလိုက္သည္။ ယခု ႏႈတ္ထြက္ခြင့္ျပဳျခင္းသည္ ၂၀၁၈ခုႏွစ္အတြင္း ပထမဦးဆံုးအၾကိမ္ျဖစ္ျပီး ျငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရးလုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ႏွင့္ ကိုက္ညီကာ ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ားအား ကာကြယ္ေစာင့္ေရွာက္ေရးသည္ အေရးၾကီးေၾကာင္း ထင္ရွားေစပါသည္။

၂၀၁၂ခုႏွစ္၊ ဇြန္လတြင္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံအစိုးရမွ ကုလသမဂၢႏွင့္အတူ ပူးတြဲ လုပ္ငန္းေဆာင္ရြက္မႈစီမံခ်က္ (Joint Action Plan)ကို စတင္ သေဘာတူလက္မွတ္ေရးထိုးၿပီးသည့္ အခ်ိန္မွ ယေန႔အထိ ကေလးသူငယ္ႏွင့္ လူငယ္စုစုေပါင္း (၉၂၄)ဦးကို တပ္မေတာ္က ႏႈတ္ထြက္ခြင့္ ျပဳခဲ့ျပီးျဖစ္သည္။ ယခုႏႈတ္ထြက္ခြင့္ျပဳျခင္းကို ‘ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ားအား တပ္မေတာ္အတြင္း ဝင္ေရာက္ တာဝန္ထမ္းေဆာင္ေစျခင္းနဲ႔ အသံုးျပဳျခင္းမွ တားဆီးရပ္တန္႔သြားဖို႔ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ အစိုးရ၏ ၾကိဳးပမ္းလုပ္ေဆာင္မႈ ျဖစ္တဲ့အတြက္ အျပဳသေဘာ ေဆာင္သည့္ တိုးတက္မႈ ေနာက္တစ္ခု’ အျဖစ္ ကေလးသူငယ္ အခြင့္အေရးမ်ားႏွင့္ သက္ဆိုင္သည့္ ႀကီးေလးေသာခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မႈမ်ားအား ေစာင့္ၾကည့္ေလ့လာေရးႏွင့္ အစီရင္ခံတင္ျပေရး ႏိုင္ငံအလိုက္ အထူးတာ၀န္အဖြဲ႕(CTFMR)၏ ပူးတြဲဥကၠဌမ်ား ျဖစ္သည့္   ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံဆိုင္ရာ ကုလသမဂၢ ဌာေနညႇိႏႈိင္းေရးမွဴး Knut Ostbyႏွင့္ ယူနီဆက္မွ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံဆိုင္ရာ ဌာေနကုိယ္စားလွယ္ June Kunugiတို႔က ဝမ္းေျမာက္စြာ ၾကိဳဆိုလိုက္ၾကသည္။

ႏႈတ္ထြက္ခြင့္ရရွိသည့္ ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ားႏွင့္ လူငယ္မ်ားသည္ ျပန္လည္ေပါင္းစည္းေရး အစီအစဥ္မ်ားတြင္ ပါဝင္သြားမည္ ျဖစ္သည့္အတြက္ သာမန္အရပ္သားဘဝကို ျပန္လည္ေရာက္ရွိႏိုင္မည္ျဖစ္ကာ ၎တို႔ကိုယ္တိုင္ ဖြံံ႔ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈမ်ားအတြက္သာမက ႏိုင္ငံသားေကာင္းမ်ားအျဖစ္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ ျငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး ရရွိျပီး အဓြန္႔ရွည္ရန္ လုပ္ေဆာင္ရာမွာ ပါဝင္ပံ့ပိုးေပးႏိုင္မွာပဲ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။

ဗဟိုထိန္းခ်ဳပ္စနစ္ျဖင့္ တပ္မေတာ္စစ္သားစုေဆာင္းေရး လုပ္ငန္းမ်ားအတြင္း အသက္စိစစ္ေရး လုပ္ေဆာင္မႈမ်ားအား တြန္းအားေပး လုပ္ေဆာင္မႈမ်ားအတြက္ CTFMR က ခ်ီးက်ဴးလုိက္ရျပီး ယခုကဲ့သို႔ အေရးပါသည့္ ကာကြယ္တားဆီးေရးနည္းစနစ္ကို ေနာင္တြင္လည္း ဆက္လက္ေဆာင္ရြက္သြားႏိုင္ရန္ တိုက္တြန္း လိုက္ရသည္။ ပူးတြဲလုပ္ငန္းစီမံခ်က္ကို သေဘာတူလက္မွတ္ ေရးထိုးခဲ့သည့္ အခ်ိန္မွစ၍ ၂၀၁၅ခုႏွစ္ လက္နက္ကိုင္ပဋိပကၡတြင္ ပါဝင္ပက္သက္ေနသည့္ ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ား၏ အခြင့္အေရးမ်ားဆိုင္ရာ ေနာက္ဆက္တြဲ အေၿခၿပစာခ်ဳပ္အား လက္မွတ္ေရးထိုးျခင္း (အတည္ျပဳ ေရးထိုးရန္က်န္ရွိ)၊ႏွင့္ ၂၀၁၇ခုႏွစ္တြင္ လက္နက္ကိုင္ပဋိပကၡ အေျခအေနမ်ားႏွင့္ ဆက္စပ္ေနေသာ ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ားအား ကာကြယ္ေစာင့္ေရွာက္နိုင္ေရး ပဲရစ္ကတိကဝတ္ႏွင့္ က်င့္ဝတ္မ်ားအား လက္မွတ္ေရးထိုးျခင္းစသည့္ အေရးၾကီးလုပ္ေဆာင္မႈမ်ား ေဆာင္ရြက္ျပီး ျဖစ္သည္။

ျပည္ေထာင္စု ျငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရးညီလာခံ(၂၁ရာစုပင္လံု) တတိယအၾကိမ္ အစည္းအေဝးတြင္ ကေလးသူငယ္ အခြင့္အေရးမ်ားဆိုင္ရာ ၾကီးေလးေသာခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မႈမ်ားအား တားဆီးကာကြယ္ေရးလုပ္ငန္းသည္ ျငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္အတြင္း အေရးပါသည့္က႑တခုအျဖစ္ ပါဝင္ေၾကာင္းကို ကေလးသူငယ္ အခြင့္အေရးမ်ားဆိုင္ရာ ကုလသမဂၢ သေဘာတူညီခ်က္စာခ်ဳပ္ႏွင့္အညီ ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ား၏ အခြင့္အေရးမ်ား ခိုင္မာေစရန္ စီစဥ္ေဆာင္ရြက္မႈမ်ား၊ ၾကီးေလးေသာခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မႈအခ်က္ ေျခာက္ရပ္အား ဖယ္ရွားရွင္းလင္းသြားရန္လုပ္ငန္းမ်ားအား ကတိကဝတ္ျပဳျခင္းအားျဖင့္ မီးေမာင္းထိုးျပလိုက္ျခင္း ျဖစ္သည္။

ကေလးသူယ္မ်ားအား တပ္မေတာ္အတြင္း တာဝန္ထမ္းေဆာင္ေစျခင္းႏွင့္ အသံုးျပဳျခင္းတို႔မွ တားဆီး ကာကြယ္ေရးလုပ္ငန္မ်ားအား စနစ္က်စြာေရရွည္လုပ္ေဆာင္သြားႏို္င္ရန္ CTFMRသည္ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္အစိုးရႏွင့္အတူ ဆက္လက္လုပ္ေဆာင္သြားမည္ ျဖစ္သည္။ လုပ္ေဆာင္ရန္ က်န္ရွိေနသည့္ လုပ္ငန္းနည္းစနစ္မ်ားအတြက္ မူေဘာင္မ်ားခိုင္မာေစရန္ လုပ္ေဆာင္ရာတြင္ အခြင့္အလမ္းသစ္မ်ား ျဖစ္သည့္ ကေလးသူငယ္အခြင့္အေရး ဥပေဒျပဌာန္းျခင္း၊ အသက္အရြယ္ တိက်စြာသိရွိႏိုင္ရန္ လံုေလာက္သည့္ အေထာက္အထား အခ်က္အလက္မ်ားမရွိသည့္ ကေလးငယ္မ်ားအား “benefit of the doubt” – “သံသယအက်ိဳးခံစားခြင့္” စနစ္ျဖင့္ စနစ္တက် ျပန္လည္လြတ္ေျမာက္ခြင့္တို႔ပါဝင္သည္။

ကုလသမဂၢအေထြေထြအတြင္းေရးမွဴးခ်ဳပ္၏ ကေလးသူငယ္ႏွင့္လက္နက္ကိုင္ပဋိပကၡဆိုင္ရာ အထူး ကိုယ္စားလွယ္ Ms Virginia Gamba၏ ၂၀၁၈ခုႏွစ္၊ ေမလ၌ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံသို႔ လာေရာက္ခဲ့သည့္ ခရီးစဥ္တြင္ သက္ဆိုင္ရာ အစိုးရဝန္ၾကီးဌာနမ်ား၊ တပ္မေတာ္အရာရွိၾကီးမ်ားႏွင့္ အေထြေထြအတြင္းေရးမွဴးခ်ဳပ္၏ စာရင္း၌ ပါဝင္ေနသည့္ လက္နက္ကိုင္အဖြဲ႔ သံုးဖြဲ႔မွ ကိုယ္စားလွယ္မ်ားႏွင့္ ေတြ႔ဆံုခဲ့သည္။  အသက္မျပည့္မီ စုေဆာင္းတာဝန္ေစခိုင္းမႈမ်ားႏွင့္ ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ားအား ကာကြယ္ေစာင့္ေရွာက္ေရးလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား ပိုမို ခိုင္မာလာေစရန္ CTFMRမွ ယင္းစာရင္းထဲတြင္ ပါဝင္ေနသည့္ လက္နက္ကိုင္အဖြဲ႔ ခုႏွစ္ဖြဲ႔ျဖင့္ ပူးေပါင္း ကတိကဝတ္ျပဳမႈ လုပ္ေဆာင္ေနမႈမ်ားအေၾကာင္းကို သူမအေနျဖင့္ ႏုိင္ငံေတာ္အစိုးရအား တင္ျပခဲ့သည္။ ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ားအား သက္ျဖတ္မႈ၊ ညွဥ္းပန္းႏွိပ္စက္မႈ၊ အဓမၼက်င့္ၾကံမႈႏွင့္ အျခား လိင္ပိုင္းဆိုင္ရာ အၾကမ္းဖက္မႈမ်ား ေတြ႔ရွိရျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ယင္းစာရင္းထဲတြင္ ပါဝင္ေနေသးသည့္ တပ္မေတာ္ႏွင့္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံရွိ ကေလးသူငယ္အခြင့္အေရးမ်ားဆုိ္င္ရာ ၾကီးေလးေသာခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မ်ား ေပၚထြက္ လာေနေသးမႈမ်ားေၾကာင့္ လြန္စြာ စိုးရိမ္ပူပန္မိေၾကာင္းလည္း ေျပာၾကားခဲ့သည္။

ယင္းခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မႈမ်ားအား ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္အစိုးရအေနျဖင့္ တုန္႔ျပန္ေဆာင္ရြက္ရန္ နည္းစနစ္မ်ားအား စတင္ အေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္ ေဆာင္ရြက္သြားရန္ CTFMR မွ တိုက္တြန္းလိုက္ရျပီး ၎အေနျဖင့္လည္း အစိုးရအား ယင္းလုပ္ငန္းစဥ္အတြက္ ဆက္လက္ပံ့ပိုးကူညီသြားမည္ဟု ကတိျပဳေၾကာင္း ျပသလိုက္သည္။

CTFMRသည္ လုပ္ငန္းစီမံခ်က္အား ေအာင္ျမင္တည္တံ့စြာျပီးဆံုးသြားႏိုင္ရန္ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္အစိုးရႏွင့္အတူ လုပ္ေဆာင္သြားမည္ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္းႏွင့္ တပ္မေတာ္အတြင္း ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ား တာဝန္ထမ္းေဆာင္ေစမႈမ်ားမွ တားဆီးကာကြယ္သြားရန္လည္း လုပ္ေဆာင္သြားမည္ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း ေျပာၾကားလိုက္သည္။


ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံတြင္ ကုလသမဂၢ အေထြေထြအတြင္းေရးမွဴးခ်ဳပ္၏ စာရင္း၌ ပါ၀င္ေနေသာ အဖြဲ႕အစည္းမ်ားႏွင့္ “အရြယ္မေရာက္ေသးသူမ်ား စုေဆာင္းျခင္းႏွင့္ အသံုးျပဳျခင္းမ်ား ျပဳလုပ္ေနေသာ အဖြဲ႔အစည္းမ်ား” –

၁.       ဒီေကဘီေအ  Democratic Karen Benevolent Army (DKBA)

၂.       ကခ်င္လြတ္လပ္ေရးတပ္ဖြဲ ႔ Kachin Independence Army (KIA)

၃.       ကရင္အမ်ိဳးသား လြတ္ေျမာက္ေရး တပ္ဖြဲ ႔ Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA)

၄.       ကရင္အမ်ိဳးသား လြတ္ေျမာက္ေရး တပ္ဖြဲ႕ ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရးေကာင္စီ Karen National Liberation Army Peace Council

၅.       ကရင္နီတပ္ဖြဲ႔ Karenni Army (KA)

၆.       ႐ွမ္းျပည္နယ္ တပ္ဖြဲ႕ ေတာင္ပိုင္း Shan State Army South (SSA-S)

၇.       ”ဝ” ျပည္နယ္ ညီၫြတ္ေရး တပ္ဖြဲ႔ United Wa State Army (UWSA)

CTFMR ႏွင့္ စပ္လ်ဥ္း၍ ေနာက္ခံအခ်က္အလက္

လက္နက္ကိုင္ ပဋိပကၡ၌ ပါ၀င္ေသာအဖြဲ႕အစည္း (တပ္မေတာ္ ႏွင့္/သို႕မဟုတ္ လက္နက္ကိုင္ အုပ္စုမ်ား) က ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ားအေပၚ ႀကီးေလးေသာခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မႈမ်ား က်ဴးလြန္သည္ဟု စစ္ေဆး အတည္ျပဳၿပီး သက္ေသအေထာက္အထား ေတြ႕႐ွိရေသာ ႏုိင္ငံမ်ားတြင္ ကုလသမဂၢက ဦးေဆာင္ေသာ CTFMR တည္ေထာင္ရန္ ကုလသမဂၢႏွင့္ အျခား ကေလးသူငယ္ကာကြယ္ေစာင့္ေ႐ွာက္ေရး အဖြဲ႕အစည္းမ်ားအား ကုလသမဂၢလံုျခံဳေရးေကာင္စီ ဆံုးျဖတ္ခ်က္ အမွတ္ ၁၆၁၂အရခြင့္ျပဳထားပါသည္။ CTFMR ၏ တာ၀န္မွာ ေစာင့္ၾကည့္ေလ့လာေရးႏွင့္ အစီရင္ခံတင္ျပေရးအစီအမံ(MRM) တည္ေထာင္ရန္ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ လက္နက္ကိုင္ပဋိပကၡတြင္ ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ားအား တပ္သားအျဖစ္စုေဆာင္းျခင္းႏွင့္ အသံုးျပဳျခင္း အပါအ၀င္ ကေလးသူငယ္အခြင့္အေရးမ်ား ႀကီးေလးေသာခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မႈမ်ားအား မွတ္တမ္းျပဳစုျခင္း၊ စစ္ေဆး အတည္ျပဳျခင္းႏွင့္ လံုျခံဳေရးေကာင္စီသို႔ အစီရင္ခံတင္ျပျခင္းမ်ား ျပဳလုပ္ပါသည္။

လံုျခံဳေရးေကာင္စီသို႔ အစီရင္ခံတင္ျပသည့္ ကေလးသူငယ္အခြင့္အေရးမ်ားဆုိင္ရာ ႀကီးေလးေသာ ခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မႈ (၆) ရပ္ –

  • ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ားကို ညွင္းပန္းႏွိပ္စက္ျခင္း (သို႔) သတ္ျဖတ္ျခင္း
  • လက္နက္ကိုင္အဖြဲ႕အစည္းမ်ားတြင္ ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ားကို တပ္သားအျဖစ္ ေခၚယူစုေဆာင္း အသံုးျပဳျခင္း
  • စာသင္ေက်ာင္း (သို႕) ေဆးရုံမ်ားကို တိုက္ခိုက္ျခင္း
  • အတင္းအဓမၼျပဳက်င့္ျခင္း (သို႔) လိင္ပိုင္းဆိုင္ရာအၾကမ္းဖက္ျခင္း
  • ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ားအား ျပန္ေပးစြဲျခင္း
  • ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ားအတြက္ လူသားခ်င္းစာနာေထာက္ထားမႈ အကူအညီမ်ားမေရာက္ရွိေအာင္ တားဆီးျခင္း တို႔ျဖစ္သည္။

CTFMRမွ ႀကီးေလးသည့္ခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မႈမ်ားကို ညႇိႏိႈင္းေပါင္းစပ္လ်က္ တံု႔ျပန္ရန္လည္း လုပ္ပိုင္ခြင့္ အပ္ႏွင္းျခင္း ခံထားရပါသည္။ CTFMR ကို ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံတြင္ ၂၀၀၇ခုႏွစ္က တည္ေထာင္ခဲ့ၿပီး ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံဆိုင္ရာ ကုလသမဂၢဌာေနညွိႏႈိင္းေရးမွဴးႏွင့္ ယူနီဆက္ျမန္မာ ဌာေနကိုယ္စားလွယ္တို႔က ပူးတြဲဥကၠဌမ်ားအျဖစ္ တာ၀န္ယူေဆာင္႐ြက္လွ်က္ရွိသည္။ CTFMR အဖြဲ႕တြင္ ကုလအဖြဲ႔မ်ားျဖစ္သည့္ UN RCO, UNICEF, ILO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNOCHA, ႏွင့္ WFP စသည့္အဖြဲ႔မ်ားႏွင့္ World Vision၊ Save the Children တို႔ ပါ၀င္ပါသည္။


၂၀၁၃ခုႏွစ္ ႏို၀င္ဘာလတြင္ ယူနီဆက္အေနျဖင့္ တပ္မေတာ္တြင္ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ားကို တပ္သားအျဖစ္ ေခၚယူစုေဆာင္း အသံုးျပဳျခင္းကို အဆံုးသတ္ေရးအတြက္ ၎တို႔၏ တာ၀န္ယူမႈကို ျပည္သူလူထုအၾကား အသိတရား ႏႈိးေဆာ္ေပးရန္အတြက္ ႏိုင္ငံအႏွံ႔လႈပ္ရွားမႈတစ္ရပ္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ႏိုင္ရန္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံအစိုးရကို ကူညီေထာက္ပံ့ေပးခဲ့သည္။ အဆိုပါလႈပ္ရွားမႈ၏ တစ္စိတ္တစ္ပိုင္းအားျဖင့္ CTFMRအဖြဲ႕ကိုယ္စား ယူနီဆက္ႏွင့္ World Vision တို႔က ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ားကို တပ္မေတာ္မွ တပ္သားအျဖစ္ ေခၚယူစုေဆာင္းသည့္ မသကၤာဖြယ္ကိစၥရပ္မ်ား ေတြ႕ျမင္ရပါက မည္သူမဆို ဆက္သြယ္အေၾကာင္းၾကား သတင္းပို႔ႏိုင္မည့္ အေရးေပၚဆက္သြယ္ေခၚယူ အေၾကာင္းၾကားႏိုင္မည့္ ဖုန္းလိုင္း ႏွစ္လိုင္း (၀၉-၄၂၁၁၆၆၇၀၁ ႏွင့္ ၀၉-၄၂၁၁၆၆၇၀၂) ကို တပ္ဆင္ေပးႏိုင္ခဲ့သည္။

ပိုမိုသိရွိလိုပါက ေအာက္ပါအတိုင္း ဆက္သြယ္ႏိုင္ပါသည္ –

Frehiwot Yilma, Communication Specialist, Advocacy, Partnerships and Communication Section, UNICEF Myanmar, fyilma@unicef.org

 Stanislav Saling, Spokesperson & Strategic Communications Specialist, Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator, United Nations in Myanmar, Stanislav.saling@one.un.org

[1] ၂၀၁၂ခုႏွစ္၊ ဇြန္လမွ လုပ္ငန္းစီမံခ်က္အရ ႏုတ္ထြက္ခြင့္ျပဳခဲ့ေသာ ငယ္႐ြယ္သူအားလံုးမွာ တပ္မေတာ္က တပ္သားအျဖစ္ စုေဆာင္းခဲ့ခ်ိန္တြင္ အသက္ ၁၈ ႏွစ္ မျပည့္ေသးပါ။

Seventy-five (75) children and young people[1] released by the Myanmar Armed Forces

 Seventy-five (75) children and young people[1] released by the Myanmar Armed Forces

YANGON, 31 August 2018 – Today, the Government of Myanmar released 75 children and young people who were recruited and used by the Armed Forces (also known as ‘Tatmadaw’). This is the first discharge to take place in 2018, and it underlines the importance of protecting children in the context of armed conflict and within the peace process.

Since June 2012, when the Myanmar government signed a Joint Action Plan with the United Nations to prevent recruitment and use of children in the Tatmadaw, 924 children and young people have been released. The co-chairs of the UN Country Task Force on Monitoring and Reporting (CTFMR) on Grave Violations against Children: Knut Ostby, the United Nations Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator and June Kunugi, UNICEF Representative, welcome this latest discharge as ‘one more positive development in the Government’s effort to end and prevent the recruitment and use of children within the Tatmadaw’.

The children and young people discharged will benefit from reintegration programmes to help them get back into civilian life, seize new opportunities for their own development and to contribute to bringing lasting peace in Myanmar as productive citizens of their country.

The CTFMR commends the Government for steps taken to reinforce age assessment procedures within the centralized military recruitment process and encourages the further roll out of this important prevention mechanism. Since the signature of the Joint Action Plan, other important actions have been taken: notably the signature of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict in 2015 (still requires ratification) and in 2017, the signature of the Paris Principles for the reintegration of children who have been associated with armed groups or forces, into civilian life.

The important role that the prevention of grave violations against children can play within the peace process was recently highlighted by the commitment made at the 3rd session of the Union Peace Conference (21st Century Panglong Conference) in July 2018 to set up and conduct programmes to ensure children’s rights and eliminate the six grave violations against children in line with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC).

The CTFMR continues to work with the Government to end systematically and prevent the recruitment and use of children in the Myanmar Armed Forces in a sustainable manner. Remaining measures include strengthening accountability frameworks through new opportunities such as the expected upcoming adoption of the Child Rights Law, and systematically releasing suspected minors when they have no or inconsistent documentation to verify their age, in line with the principle of the “benefit of the doubt”.

During the recent visit of Ms Virginia Gamba, the Special Representative of the Secretary General on Children and Armed Conflict (SRSG CAAC) to Myanmar in May 2018, she met with high-level officials from relevant Government Ministries, the Tatmadaw, as well as representatives from three listed armed groups. She informed the Government on the CTFMR’s engagement to develop and sign joint commitments with the seven listed armed groups to end and prevent underage recruitment in their ranks and strengthen the protection of children. She also expressed her strong concerns over emerging trends of other grave violations of children’s rights in Myanmar such as killing and maiming and rape and other sexual violence against children, for which Tatmadaw has since been listed.

The CTFMR urges the Government to start working on measures to prevent and respond to those violations and expresses its commitment to support the Government in this process. The CTFMR remains committed to working closely with the Government in its efforts towards completion of the Joint Action Plan to sustainably end and prevent further recruitment and use of children by the Tatmadaw.

In addition to the Tatmadaw, there are seven non-state armed groups listed by the UN Secretary-General as being ‘persistent perpetrators’ in the recruitment and use of children in Myanmar. They are the:

  1. Democratic Karen Benevolent Army (DKBA)
  2. Kachin Independence Army (KIA)
  3. Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA)
  4. Karen National Liberation Army Peace Council
  5. Karenni Army (KA)
  6. Shan State Army South (SSA-S)
  7. United Wa State Army (UWSA)


United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 1612 mandates the UN to establish UN-led CTFMRs in countries where there is verified evidence that Grave Violations against children are being committed by parties to a conflict, either by armed forces and/or by armed groups. The CTFMR is tasked with establishing a Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism (MRM) which documents, verifies and reports to the UNSC on Grave Violations against children.  The six Grave Violations that are monitored and reported are:

  • killing or maiming of children
  • recruitment and use of children in armed forces and armed groups
  • attacks against schools or hospitals
  • rape or other grave sexual violence
  • abduction of children
  • denial of humanitarian access for children

The CTFMR is also mandated to provide a coordinated response to such grave violations. The CTFMR was established in Myanmar in 2007 and is co-chaired by the UN Resident Coordinator and the UNICEF Representative in Yangon. The CTFMR in Myanmar includes relevant UN agencies (the UN RCO, UNICEF, ILO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UN OCHA, and WFP), Save the Children and World Vision.

In November 2013, UNICEF supported the Myanmar Government to launch a nation-wide campaign to raise awareness of its population on its commitment to end recruitment and use of children by Tatmadaw.  As part of this campaign, and on behalf of CTFMR, UNICEF and World Vision are managing a hotline with two phone numbers (09-421166701 and 09-421166702) where anyone can alert and report suspected cases of children being recruited or used by the Tatmadaw. The hotline is operational 24 hours per day, seven days per week.

 For more information please contact:

Frehiwot Yilma, Communication Specialist, Advocacy, Partnerships and Communication Section, UNICEF Myanmar, fyilma@unicef.org

Stanislav Saling, Spokesperson & Strategic Communications Specialist, Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator, United Nations in Myanmar, Stanislav.saling@one.un.org

[1] All young people released were children under 18 at the time of the signing of the Joint Action Plan in June 2012.





New York, 28 August 2018

[as delivered]


I join you today with a heavy heart.


The massive refugee emergency that began one year ago in Rakhine State, Myanmar, has become one of the world’s worst humanitarian and human rights crises.


Last month, I visited Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh and heard stories of horrendous persecution and suffering.


One father broke down as he told me how his son was shot dead in front of him.  His mother was brutally murdered and his house burned to the ground.


He took refuge in a mosque only to be discovered by soldiers who abused him and burned the Quran.


I know members of the Council heard similar harrowing accounts on your own visit to the region.


You highlighted in your press statement of 9 May the degree to which you “were struck by the scale of the humanitarian crisis” and how you “remain gravely concerned by the current situation.”


You also reaffirmed the Security Council presidential statement of 6 November 2017 which “strongly condemns the widespread violence that has taken place in Rakhine State”.


You expressed your “grave concern over reports of human rights violations and abuses in Rakhine State, including by the Myanmar security forces, in particular against persons belonging to the Rohingya community.”


One year ago, I condemned, immediately, the attacks by extremists against the security forces.  But these attacks could never justify the disproportionate use of force against civilian populations and the gross human rights violations committed by the Myanmar security forces and their allies.


Last September, I sent an official letter to this Council urging concerted efforts to prevent further escalation of the crisis in northern Rakhine state.


Following my direct engagement with the Myanmar authorities and several initiatives on the ground by the UN system, I expressed my concerns regarding the dramatic humanitarian and human rights situations.  And I emphasized the risks to regional peace and security of further degeneration.


As you know, I have also been working to advance a policy of engagement and unified action to encourage positive actions by the Government, help defuse tensions between communities and build confidence and trust.


In April, I appointed Christine Schraner Burgener as my Special Envoy on Myanmar.  She is undertaking a process of broad consultations, including with the Government and the military, and with civil society and women’s groups.  I appreciate this Council’s strong support and welcome Myanmar’s positive cooperation with her so far.


In June, UNHCR, UNDP and the Myanmar authorities finalized a Memorandum of Understanding that establishes a framework for cooperation to create conditions for the voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable repatriation of refugees from Bangladesh.


The MoU is also aimed at helping to create improved and resilient livelihoods for all communities living in Rakhine State.


But of course, all of this requires a massive investment – not only in reconstruction and development for all communities in one of Myanmar’s poorest regions, but also in reconciliation and respect for human rights.


I do not yet see the needed commitment for that investment to take place.


It is clear that conditions are not yet met for the safe, voluntary, dignified and sustainable return of Rohingya refugees to their places of origin or choice.


I ask members of the Security Council to join me in urging the Myanmar authorities to cooperate with the United Nations, and to ensure immediate, unimpeded and effective access for its agencies and partners.  We must also continue to press for the release of journalists who have been arrested for reporting on this human tragedy.


Access is critical to meet the enormous needs, and to allay the fears of refugees who would like to return home.


For people who remain in Rakhine, it would allow for consultations on quick impact projects, based on their assessed needs.


Those Rohingya who remain in Rakhine continue to face marginalization and discrimination.


Many have been cut off from life-saving humanitarian assistance.


Some 130,000 Rohingya remain confined in camps with severe restrictions on their freedom of movement.  They have extremely limited access to health, education and other essential services, and to ways of making a living.


There can be no excuse for delaying the search for dignified solutions that will allow people to return to their areas of origin in safety and dignity, in line with international standards and human rights.  The United Nations remains ready to help develop such a plan.


Voluntary relocation along with freedom of movement, an end to segregation and discrimination, inclusive development, the re-establishment of the rule of law and public safety are essential.


It is ultimately the responsibility of Myanmar’s leaders to demonstrate greater resolve in upholding the principles of equality and non-discrimination, countering incitement to racial hatred and violence.


I want to once again applaud the tremendous generosity of the Bangladeshi authorities and host communities.


But the response to the crisis must be a global one.


The international humanitarian appeal for the Rohingya crisis remains significantly underfunded at 33 per cent.


Much more must be done to alleviate the very real risks to life from current and impending monsoons.


I am grateful to the World Bank and President Jim Yong Kim for mobilizing almost half a billion dollars in grant-based support for Rohingya refugees and host communities.


The grant-based assistance approved by the Asian Development Bank is also crucial in meeting medium-term needs and providing assistance towards life-saving priorities.


Yet, refugees need more access to education and livelihoods to avoid further vulnerability to the risks of trafficking, sexual exploitation and radicalization.

I cannot forget the stories I heard in Cox’s Bazar.


One distraught woman gestured to a mother cradling her young baby who was conceived as a result of rape, and told me: “We need security in Myanmar and citizenship.  And we want justice for what our sisters, our daughters, our mothers have suffered.”


Accountability is essential for genuine reconciliation between all ethnic groups and is a prerequisite for regional security and stability.


Regrettably, Myanmar has refused to cooperate with United Nations human rights entities and mechanisms, despite repeated calls to do so, including by members of this Council.


We have called for different accountability options to be considered.  Most recently, very strong concerns have been expressed by the UN Independent Fact Finding Mission on Myanmar appointed by the Human Rights Council.


Its report, issued yesterday, found “patterns of gross human rights violations and abuses” committed by the security forces, which it said “undoubtedly amount to the gravest crimes under international law.”


I believe this report’s findings and recommendations deserve serious consideration by all relevant United Nations bodies.


Effective international cooperation will be critical to ensuring that accountability mechanisms are credible, transparent, impartial, independent and comply with Myanmar’s obligations under international law.


This Council has issued a strong Presidential Statement.


We also have the clear recommendations of the Kofi Annan-led Advisory Commission on Rakhine State as a guiding framework – a framework that takes into account the needs of the victims and address root causes, including discrimination, persecution and lack of legal status.


I would like to take this opportunity to commend once again the statesmanship of the late former Secretary-General in Myanmar and elsewhere.


But there is much still to be done to provide the necessary conditions for peace and justice in Rakhine.


So long as a climate of fear and persecution prevails in Rakhine, voluntary returns will not take place.


All communities in Rakhine are poor and need sustainable and inclusive development.  This is also essential for reconciliation and peace.

I would add that patterns of violations against ethnic and religious minorities beyond Rakhine must also end, for genuine democracy to take root.


A year has passed.  This crisis cannot continue indefinitely.


This Council has shown unity in adopting its Presidential Statement.


That unity remains essential if we are to answer clear appeals with action.


Thank you.



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ျမန္မာ။ ။ တပ္မေတာ္ေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ားကို ဂ်န္နိုဆိုက္ ေခၚ မ်ိဳးႏြယ္စုတစ္စုအား မ်ိဳးျဖဳတ္ျခင္း၊ လူသားတမ်ိဳးႏြယ္လုံး အေပၚ သက္ေရာက္ က်ဴးလြန္သည့္ ရာဇဝတ္မွုမ်ား ႏွင့္ စစ္ရာဇဝတ္မွုမ်ား အတြက္ စုံစမ္းစစ္ေဆးရန္ လိုအပ္သည္ဟု ကုလသမဂၢ အစီရင္ခံစာက ဆို။

လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးေကာင္စီ ဆုံးျဖတ္ခ်က္အမွတ္ (၃၄/၂၂)အရ ဖြဲ႕စည္းခဲ့သည့္ ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံဆိုင္ရာ၊ သီးသန္႔လြတ္လပ္ေသာ၊ နိုင္ငံတကာ အခ်က္အလက္ရွာေဖြေရး မစ္ရွင္း။ ။

ျမန္မာ။ ။ တပ္မေတာ္ေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ားကို ဂ်န္နိုဆိုက္ ေခၚ မ်ိဳးႏြယ္စုတစ္စုအား မ်ိဳးျဖဳတ္ျခင္း၊ လူသားတမ်ိဳးႏြယ္လုံး အေပၚ သက္ေရာက္ က်ဴးလြန္သည့္ ရာဇဝတ္မွုမ်ား ႏွင့္ စစ္ရာဇဝတ္မွုမ်ား အတြက္ စုံစမ္းစစ္ေဆးရန္ လိုအပ္သည္ဟု ကုလသမဂၢ အစီရင္ခံစာက ဆို။

ဂ်ီနီဗာၿမိဳ႕၊ (၂၀၁၈) ခုႏွစ္ ဩဂုတ္လ (၂၇)ရက္။ ။ ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံ၏ တပ္မေတာ္ကာကြယ္ေရးဦးစီးခ်ဳပ္ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္မွူးႀကီး မင္းေအာင္လွိုင္ အပါအဝင္၊ စစ္တပ္၏ ထိပ္တန္းဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ႀကီးမ်ားအား ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ ေျမာက္ပိုင္းတြင္ က်ဴးလြန္ခဲ့ေသာ ဂ်န္နိုဆိုက္ ေခၚ မ်ိဳးႏြယ္စုတစ္စုအား မ်ိဳးျဖဳတ္ျခင္း၊ အလားတူ ရခိုင္၊ ကခ်င္ႏွင့္ ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္တို႔တြင္ က်ဴးလြန္ခဲ့ေသာ လူသားတမ်ိဳးႏြယ္လုံးအေပၚ သက္ေရာက္သည့္ ရာဇဝတ္မွုမ်ား ႏွင့္ စစ္ရာဇဝတ္မွုမ်ား အတြက္ စုံစမ္းစစ္ေဆးၿပီး ႐ုံးတင္တရားစြဲရန္ လိုအပ္သည္ဟု ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံဆိုင္ရာ၊ သီးသန္႔လြတ္လပ္ေသာ၊ နိုင္ငံတကာ အခ်က္အလက္ရွာေဖြေရး မစ္ရွင္း၏ ယေန႔ ထုတ္ျပန္အစီရင္ခံစာက တိုက္တြန္းလိုက္သည္။
ဤမစ္ရွင္းကို ကုလသမဂၢ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးေကာင္စီမွ (၂၀၁၇)ခုႏွစ္၊ မတ္လတြင္ ဖြဲ႕စည္းခဲ့ၿပီး၊ ၎က “အျပည္ျပည္ဆိုင္ရာ ဥပေဒအရ သံသယျဖစ္ဖြယ္မရွိသည့္ အဆိုးရြားဆုံးေသာ ရာဇဝတ္မွုမ်ားႏွင့္ တန္းတူညီမၽွသည့္” အလြန္ဆိုး၀ါးေသာလူ႔အခြင့္အေရး ခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မွုမ်ားႏွင့္ အလြဲသုံးစားျပဳမွုပုံစံမ်ားအား ကခ်င္၊ ရခိုင္ႏွင့္ ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္တို႔၌ အဓိကအားျဖင့္ တပ္မေတာ္ေခၚ ျမန္မာ့ စစ္တပ္မွ က်ဴးလြန္ခဲ့ေၾကာင္း၊ တျခား လုံျခဳံေရးတပ္ဖြဲ႕မ်ားကလည္း ပါဝင္လုပ္ရွားခဲ့ေၾကာင္း ေတြ႕ရွိခဲ့သည္။
“စစ္အင္အား အသုံးျပဳရန္ အမွန္တကယ္ လိုအပ္ခဲ့လၽွင္လည္း၊ ႏွိုင္းခ်ိန္မွု မရွိဘဲ လူမသိသူမသိ သတ္ျဖတ္ျခင္း၊ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားအား လူစုလိုက္ဝိုင္းၿပီး မုဒိန္းက်င့္ျခင္း၊ ကေလးမ်ားအား ထိုးႏွက္တိုက္ခိုက္ျခင္း ႏွင့္ ရြာလုံးေပါက္ မီးရွို႔ျခင္းတို႔အား ဘယ္ေသာအခါမွ တရားမၽွတမွန္ကန္ေၾကာင္း ေျပာခြင့္ရွိမည္ မဟုတ္ပါ။ တပ္မေတာ္၏ နည္းဗ်ဴဟာသည္ အမွန္တကယ္ရွိေသာ လုံျခဳံေရးအႏၲရာယ္ထက္ မ်ားစြာပိုလြန္ေသာ အင္အားကို အစဥ္တစိုက္သုံးျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။ ထိုကဲ့သို႔ အင္အား အလြန္အကၽြံအသုံးျပဳမွုကို အထူးသျဖင့္ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္၌ ေတြ႕ရွိရၿပီး ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံေျမာက္ပိုင္းတြင္လည္း ေတြ႕ရွိရသည္”ဟု အစီရင္ခံစာက ဆိုသည္။
“ဤကဲ့သို႔ တိုက္ခိုက္မွုမ်ားကို မျဖစ္ခဲ့ပါဘူးဟု စြတ္ျငင္းေနျခင္း၊ ရက္ရက္စက္စက္ လုပ္ရပ္မ်ားကို ပုံမွန္သေဘာျဖင့္ လက္ခံထားျခင္း၊ က်ဴးလြန္သူမ်ား ယေန႔အထိ ျပစ္ဒဏ္ကင္းလြတ္ေနျခင္းတို႔မွာ တုန္လွုပ္ဖြယ္ရာ ေကာင္းလွပါသည္။ တပ္မေတာ္အေနႏွင့္ လူ႔အသက္၊ လူ႔ဂုဏ္သိကၡာ ႏွင့္ လြတ္လပ္ခြင့္တို႔ကို မထီမဲ့ျမင္ျပဳျခင္း၊ ေယဘုယ်အားျဖင့္ အျပည္ျပည္ဆိုင္ရာ ဥပေဒဆိုလၽွင္ လုံးဝဂ႐ုမစိုက္ျခင္းတို႔မွာ ျမန္မာတနိုင္ငံလုံးရွိ လူထုအားလုံးအတြက္ စိုးရိမ္စရာ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။”
ကခ်င္၊ ရွမ္းႏွင့္ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္တို႔တြင္ က်ဴးလြန္ခဲ့ေသာ လူသားတမ်ိဳးႏြယ္လုံး အေပၚ သက္ေရာက္သည့္ ရာဇဝတ္မွုမ်ားမွာ လူသတ္မွု၊ ေထာင္သြင္း အက်ဥ္းခ်ထားမွု၊ လူသားမ်ားအား အတင္းအၾကပ္ ေပ်ာက္ကြယ္သြားေစမွု၊ ႏွိပ္စက္ညႇဥ္းပန္းမွု၊ မုဒိမ္းမွု၊ အဓမၼလိင္ကၽြန္ ျပဳမွု၊ အျခားေသာ လိင္ပိုင္းဆိုင္ရာ အၾကမ္းဖက္မွုမ်ား၊ ႏွိပ္စက္မွုႏွင့္ ေက်းကၽြန္ျပဳလုပ္မွုတို႔ ပါဝင္ပါသည္။ ထို႔အျပင္ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္၌ လူအစုလိုက္အျပဳံလိုက္သတ္ျဖတ္မွုမ်ားႏွင့္ နိုင္ငံမွ ႏွင္ထုတ္ျခင္းစသည့္ လူသားတမ်ိဳးႏြယ္လုံး အေပၚ သက္ေရာက္သည့္ ရာဇဝတ္မွုမ်ားလည္း ျဖစ္ပြားခဲ့ပါသည္။
မစ္ရွင္မွ ေကာက္ခ်က္ခ်သည္မွာ “ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္၌ ျဖစ္ပြားခဲ့ေသာ ကိစၥႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္၍ ဂ်န္နိုဆိုက္ ေခၚ မ်ိဳးျဖဳတ္ျခင္း အတြက္ တာဝန္ရွိေၾကာင္း အရည္အခ်င္းျပည့္မွီေသာ တရား႐ုံးက ဆုံးျဖတ္ခ်က္ ခ်နိုင္ရန္အလို႔ငွာ တပ္မေတာ္ ကြပ္ကဲမွုအဆင့္ဆင့္ရွိအႀကီးတန္းအရာရွိမ်ားကို စုံစမ္းစစ္ေဆး တရားစြဲဆိုခြင့္ျပဳရန္ လုံေလာက္ေသာ သတင္းအခ်က္အလက္ အျပည့္ရွိသည္” ဟူ၍ျဖစ္သည္။
“မ်ိဳးျဖဳတ္ရန္ ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္ (Genocidal Intent) ရွိသည္ဟု အတည္ျပဳခဲ့ၿပီးျဖစ္ေသာ တျခားအျဖစ္အပ်က္တို႔၏ သေဘာသဘာဝ၊ ဆိုးရြားမွု အေနအထားႏွင့္ နယ္ပယ္ တို႔မွာ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္၌ က်ဴးလြန္ခဲ့သည့္ ရာဇဝတ္မွုမ်ားႏွင့္ က်ဴးလြန္သည့္ နည္းလမ္းမွာ ဆင္တူသည္ ”ဟု အစီရင္ခံစာက ဆိုသည္။ ဤကဲ့သို႔ ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္ ရွိသည္ဟု ညႊန္ျပေနေသာ အခ်က္အလက္တို႔မွာ က်ယ္က်ယ္ျပန္႔ျပန္႔ ဖိနိုပ္လ်က္ရွိေသာ အေျခအေနႏွင့္ အမုန္းစကားမ်ား၊ တပ္မွူးမ်ားႏွင့္ တိုက္ရိုက္ျပစ္မွုက်ဴးလြန္သူတို႔၏ ေျပာစကားမ်ား၊ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ရွိ လူဦးေရဖြဲ႕စည္းမွုကို ေျပာင္းလဲေစေသာ အပါအဝင္ ဖယ္ထုတ္ေရးမူဝါဒမ်ား၊ ဖ်က္ဆီးရန္ အႀကံအစည္ရွိသည္ဟု ညြန္ျပေနေသာ အဖြဲ႕အစည္း၏အဆင့္ႏွင့္ အၾကမ္းဖက္မွု၏ အလြန္အက်ဴး အတိုင္းအဆႏွင့္ ရက္စက္မွု”တို႔ ျဖစ္ၾကပါသည္။
ထိေရာက္စြာ ထိန္းခ်ဳပ္နိုင္ၿပီး တာဝန္အရွိဆုံးဟု မစ္ရွင္က ယူဆေသာ စြပ္စြဲထားသည့္ က်ဴးလြန္သူမ်ား စာရင္းကို ဦးစားေပးစုံစမ္းစစ္ေဆးကာ တရားစြဲဆိုရန္ စာရင္းျပဳစုထားသည္။ ထိပ္ဆုံးမွ တာဝန္ရွိသူမွာ တပ္မေတာ္ကာကြယ္ေရးဦးစီးခ်ဳပ္၊ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္မွူးႀကီး မင္းေအာင္လွိုင္ ျဖစ္သည္။ ေနာက္ထပ္တျခားေသာ တပ္မွူး (၅)ဦးကိုလည္း အစီရင္ခံစာတြင္ အမည္ေဖာ္ျပထားသည္။ ၎တို႔မွာ ဒုတိယ တပ္မေတာ္ကာကြယ္ေရးဦးစီးခ်ဳပ္ ဒုတိယ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္မွူးႀကီး စိုးဝင္း၊ အမွတ္(၃) စစ္ဆင္ေရးအထူးအဖြဲ႕မွူး ဒုတိယဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ႀကီး ေအာင္ေက်ာ္ေဇာ၊ အေနာက္ပိုင္းတိုင္းစစ္ဌာနခ်ဳပ္ တိုင္းမွူး ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေမာင္ေမာင္စိုး၊ အမွတ္(၃၃) ေျချမန္တပ္မဌာနခ်ဳပ္ တပ္မမွူး ဗိုလ္မွူးခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ေအာင္ ႏွင့္ အမွတ္(၉၉) ေျချမန္တပ္မဌာနခ်ဳပ္ တပ္မမွူး ဗိုလ္မွူးခ်ဳပ္ သန္းဦးတို႔ ျဖစ္ၾကသည္။ ဤထက္မကမ်ားျပားေသာ ပုဂၢိဳလ္မ်ား၏ အမည္စာရင္းကို ကုလသမဂၢ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးဆိုင္ရာ မဟာမင္းႀကီးထံတြင္ ထိန္းသိမ္းထားမည္ျဖစ္ၿပီး၊ အျပည္ျပည္ဆိုင္ရာ စံမ်ား ႏွင့္အညီ၊ တာဝန္ခံမွုကို က်င့္သုံးေသာ မည္သည့္အရည္အခ်င္း ျပည့္မွီၿပီး၊ ယုံၾကည္ထိုက္ေသာ အဖြဲ႕အစည္း ႏွင့္ မဆို မၽွေဝနိုင္သည္။
အရပ္ဖက္အာဏာပိုင္မ်ားတြင္ တပ္မေတာ္၏ လုပ္ရပ္မ်ားကို ထိန္းသိမ္းနိုင္ရန္ အခြင့္အလမ္း နည္းပါးသည္ဟု အစီရင္ခံစာမွ ေဖာ္ျပလိုက္သည္။ ဆက္လက္၍ “၎တို႔၏ လုပ္ရပ္မ်ားႏွင့္၊ ထိမ္ခ်န္ထားမွုမ်ားေၾကာင့္ ဆိုးရြားၾကမ္းၾကဳတ္ေသာ ရာဇဝတ္မွုမ်ားကို အရပ္ဖက္အာဏာပိုင္မ်ားက က်ဴးလြန္ရာေရာက္သည္” ဟုလည္း အစီရင္ခံစာက ေတြ႕ရွိသည္။
“နိုင္ငံေတာ္၏ အတိုင္ပင္ခံပုဂၢိဳလ္ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္သည္ ၄င္း၏ နိုင္ငံေတာ္အႀကီးအကဲသဖြယ္ ရာထူးကိုေသာ္လည္းေကာင္း၊ သူ၏ ပုဂၢိဳလ္ေရး ၾသဇာ ကိုေသာ္လည္းေကာင္း အသုံးျပဳၿပီး၊ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္၌ ေပၚေပါက္ခဲ့ေသာ ျဖစ္ရပ္မ်ားကို တားဆီးျခင္းတို႔ မရွိပါဟု” ဟု အစီရင္ခံစာက ေဖာ္ျပထား သည္။
“ျပစ္ဒဏ္မွကင္းလြတ္ျခင္းသည္ ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံ၏ နိုင္ငံေရးႏွင့္ တရားဥပေဒစနစ္တြင္ နက္ရွိုင္းစြာ အျမစ္တြယ္ေနရကား တပ္မေတာ္သည္ ဥပေဒအထက္တြင္ ေရာက္ရွိေနသည္ဟု အစီရင္ခံစာက ေဖာ္ျပသည္။ ထို႔ေၾကာင့္လည္း ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံတြင္ က်ဴးလြန္ခံခဲ့ရသူမ်ားအတြက္ တရားမၽွတမွု မရွိသည္မွာ ဆယ္စုႏွစ္ႏွင့္ခ်ီ၍ ရွိခဲ့ၿပီျဖစ္သည္ဟုလည္း အစီရင္ခံစာက ဆက္လက္ေဖာ္ျပထားသည္။ တာဝန္ယူ၊ တာဝန္ခံနိုင္ရန္အတြက္ နိုင္ငံတကာအသိုက္အဝန္းက တြန္းအားေပးရမည္။
မစ္ရွင္းက ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံ၏ အေျခအေနကို အျပည္ျပည္ဆိုင္ရာ ရာဇဝတ္မွု တရား႐ုံးသို႔ လႊဲအပ္ရန္ သို႔မဟုတ္၊ အျပည္ျပည္ဆိုင္ရာ ရာဇဝတ္ခုံ႐ုံး တစ္႐ုံးကို ဖြဲ႕စည္းရန္ ေတာင္း ဆိုလိုက္သည္။ ထိုကဲ့သို႔ လုပ္ေဆာင္ေနဆဲ အခ်ိန္တြင္ ခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မွုမ်ား၏ သက္ေသအေထာက္အထားမ်ားကို စုစည္းရန္၊ ခိုင္မာေစရန္၊ ထိန္းသိမ္းရန္ႏွင့္ ခြဲျခမ္းစိတ္ျဖာရန္အတြက္ လြတ္လပ္ ဘက္မလိုက္ေသာ ယႏၲရားတစ္ရပ္ ကို တည္ေထာင္ရန္ ေတာင္းဆိုလိုက္သည္။ တာဝန္ အရွိဆုံးဟု ထင္ျမင္ယူဆရေသာသူမ်ားကို တစ္ဦးခ်င္း အေရးယူပိတ္ဆို႔ရန္ ကိုလည္းေထာက္ခံတင္ျပခဲ့သည္။
၂၀၁၇ ခုႏွစ္၊ ဩဂုတ္လ (၂၅)ရက္ေန႔တြင္ အာဆာလက္နက္ကိုင္အဖြဲ႕က ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ေျမာက္ပိုင္း တ၀ွမ္းတြင္ တပ္မေတာ္ႏွင့္ လုံျခဳံေရး ကင္းစခန္းမ်ားအား တိုက္ခိုက္ေသာအခါ တပ္မေတာ္က အင္အား အလုံးအရင္းျဖင့္ တုံ႔ျပန္မွုေၾကာင့္ အၾကမ္းဖက္မွုျဖစ္ပြားခဲ့ၿပီးေနာက္ပိုင္း အစုလိုက္အျပဳံလိုက္ စြန္႔ခြာထြက္ေျပးမွု ျဖစ္ခဲ့ရျခင္းသည္ ဆယ္စုႏွစ္ေပါင္းမ်ားစြာအတြင္း ဆိုးရြားေသာ ျဖစ္ရပ္ျဖစ္ခဲ့ေၾကာင္း အစီရင္ခံစာက ေဖာ္ျပထားသည္။ “တရားဝင္ ျပဌာန္းခ်က္မ်ားမွ တဆင့္ ေမြးကင္းစမွ အသက္ေသဆုံးသည့္ အခ်ိန္အထိ စနစ္တက်၊ ျပင္းျပင္းထန္ထန္ ဖိစီးႏွိပ္ကြပ္ျခင္း၊” နိုင္ငံသား ျဖစ္ပိုင္ခြင့္ကို ဇြဲေကာင္းေကာင္းႏွင့္ ဆက္တိုက္ျငင္းပယ္ေနျခင္း၊ သြားလာလွုပ္ရွားမွုကို ျပင္းထန္စြာ ကန္႔သတ္ထားျခင္းတို႔ အပါအဝင္၊ တျခားဖယ္ရွားလိုေသာ အေျမာ္အျမင္တို႔၏ အက်ိဳးဆက္ရလဒ္ေၾကာင့္ ဤကဲ့သို႔ ကပ္ေဘးဆိုက္ခဲ့ရျခင္းျဖစ္သည္ ဟုလည္း အစီရင္ခံစာက မွတ္ခ်က္ခ်လိုက္သည္။ ဤေနာက္ခံဇာတ္ေၾကာင္းမွ ဆက္လက္၍၊ (၂၀၁၂)တြင္ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္၌ ေပၚေပါက္ခဲ့ေသာ အၾကမ္းဖက္မွုမ်ားက (၂၀၁၆)၏ ႀကီးႀကီးမားမား၊ က်ယ္က်ယ္ျပန႔္ျပန႔္ အၾကမ္းဖက္မွုမ်ား ႏွင့္ (၂၀၁၇)၏ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး ကပ္ဆိုက္ျခင္းတို႔အား ဦးေဆာင္ခဲ့သည္။
လူမ်ားကို အစုလိုက္အျပဳံလိုက္သတ္ျဖတ္ျခင္းမ်ား၊ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာရြာတန္းမ်ားကို ျပာက်သည့္အထိ မီးရွို႔ဖ်က္ဆီးျခင္း၊ တပ္မေတာ္ စစ္သားမ်ားမွ မိန္းမသားမ်ားကို ႀကီးႀကီးမားမား၊ က်ယ္က်ယ္ျပန႔္ျပန႔္ အုပ္စုဖြဲ႕ၿပီး မုဒိမ္းက်င့္ျခင္းႏွင့္ တျခားလိင္ပိုင္းဆိုင္ရာ အၾကမ္းဖက္မွုမ်ား ျပဳလုပ္ခဲ့ျခင္းတို႔ကို မစ္ရွင္းမွ မွတ္တမ္းတင္ခဲ့သည္။ ေစာ္ကားခံရသူတစ္ဦး၏ စိတ္ထိခိုက္ဖြယ္ရာေကာင္းေသာ ေျပာဆိုခ်က္က လိင္ပိုင္းဆိုင္ရာ အၾကမ္းဖက္မွုမ်ား မည္မၽွ ဧရာမ က်ယ္ျပန္႔ခဲ့သည္ကို ညႊန္ျပပါသည္။ သူမက “ကၽြန္မက ကံေကာင္းတယ္၊ ကၽြန္မကို မုဒိန္းက်င့္ခဲ့တာ ေယာက္်ား ၃ေယာက္ထဲ” ဟုဆိုသည္။ မုဒိမ္းက်င့္မွုမ်ားကို မ်ားေသာအားျဖင့္ လူသူအေရွ႕၊ မိသားစုဝင္‌မ်ား၊ ကေလးမ်ားရဲ့ အေရွ႕မွာ က်ဴးလြန္ခဲ့ၾကသည္။ ေသနတ္ျပစ္ခံရသည္၊ ဓားထိုးခံရသည္၊ မီးရွို႔ခံရသည္ဆိုေသာ ေျပာဆိုခ်က္မ်ားႏွင့္ ကိုက္ညီသည့္ ထိခိုက္ဒဏ္ရာမ်ားရရွိထားသည့္ ကေလးေပါင္းမ်ားစြာကိုလည္း မစ္ရွင္းမွ မ်က္ျမင္ေတြ႕ရွိခဲ့သည္။ က်ယ္က်ယ္ျပန္႔ျပန္႔၊ စနစ္တက်၊ တမင္သက္သက္၊ ပစ္မွတ္ခ်ၿပီး ဖ်က္ဆီးျခင္းတို႔ က်ဴးလြန္ခဲ့ေၾကာင္း၊ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာတို႔ ေနထိုင္ခဲ့သည့္ ေနရာမ်ားမွာ မီးေလာင္ပ်က္ဆီးခဲ့ၿပီး၊ အနီးစပ္ရွိ ရခိုင္အိမ္တန္းမ်ား လုံးဝ အထိမခံခဲ့ရေၾကာင္း ၿဂိဳလ္တုပုံရိပ္မ်ားက အကိုက္အညီ ေဖာ္ျပၾကသည္။
“အမုန္းစကားမ်ား ထြန္းကားေစေသာ၊ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး ခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မွုမ်ား တရားဝင္ျဖစ္ေနေသာ၊ ခြဲျခားဆက္ဆံေရးႏွင့္ အၾကမ္းဖက္ေရး လွုံ႔ေဆာ္ခ်က္မ်ား လြယ္ကူေခ်ာေမာစြာ ပ်ံ႕ပြားေစေသာ အေျခအေနေရာက္ေအာင္ အစိုးရႏွင့္ တပ္မေတာ္တို႔က ျပဳစုပ်ိဳးေထာင္ခဲ့သည္” ဟု ထုတ္ျပန္စာက ဆိုသည္။ မစ္ရွင္းမွ မ်ားျပားလွေသာ အမုန္းစကားႏွင့္ အၾကမ္းဖက္ေရး လွုံ႔ေဆာ္ခ်က္ နမူနာမ်ားကို ေတြ႕ရွိခဲ့သည္။ ဥပမာတစ္ခုမွာ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္တြင္ နိုင္ငံေရးဦးေဆာင္ျဖစ္သူ ပါတီတစ္ခုက ဟစ္တလာကို ကိုးကား၍ “လူသားမဆန္သည့္ လုပ္ရပ္သည္ တစ္ခါတေလမွာ လူမ်ိဳးတစ္မ်ိဳး တည္တံ့ခိုင္ျမဲေရးအတြက္ လိုအပ္သည္” ဟု (၂၀၁၂)ခုႏွစ္ နိုဝင္ဘာလတြင္ ထုတ္ျပန္ခဲ့ေလသည္။
(၂၀၁၇)ခုႏွစ္ ဩဂုတ္လတြင္ အာဆာ၏ ထိုးစစ္အား လုံခ်ဳံေရး တပ္ဖြဲ႕မ်ားက နာရီပိုင္းအတြင္း စတင္ကာ၊ ခ်က္ခ်င္း၊ ရက္ရက္စက္စက္ႏွင့္ အဆမတန္ အင္အားသုံးကာ တုံ႔ျပန္ခဲ့ၾကသည္။ ဤကဲ့သို႔ တုံ႔ျပန္နိုင္ခဲ့ျခင္းသည္ အဆင့္မီ ပုံစံေဖာ္ထားသည့္ ႀကိဳတင္အစီအစဥ္ရွိေၾကာင္း ညႊန္ျပသည္။ ထိုအခ်က္သည္ တပ္မေတာ္ကာကြယ္ေရးဦးစီးခ်ဳပ္ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္မွူးႀကီး မင္းေအာင္လွိုင္ကိုယ္တိုင္ ေျပာဆိုခဲ့သည့္ “မၿပီးျပတ္ေသးေသာ ၾကာရွည္တည္တံ့ခဲ့သည့္ ဘဂၤါလီျပႆနာကို ေျဖရွင္းရန္” ဆိုေသာ အေျမာ္အျမင္ႏွင့္ ကိုက္ညီလ်က္ ရွိသည္။ (၂၀၁၇)ခုႏွစ္ ဩဂုတ္လဆန္းမွ စတင္၍ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ ေျမာက္ပိုင္းတေလၽွာက္တြင္ တပ္မမ်ား၊ စစ္ေၾကာင္းမ်ားႏွင့္ တျခားစစ္တပ္၏ လက္နက္ကိရိယာတို႔ အမ်ားအျပား စုပုံလာခဲ့ေၾကာင္း မစ္ရွင္းမွ ေတြ႕ရွိခဲ့သည္။
လုံျခဳံေရးတပ္ဖြဲ႕မ်ားက ရခိုင္တိုင္းရင္းသားမ်ား အေပၚလည္း လိင္ပိုင္းဆိုင္ရာ အၾကမ္းဖက္မွုမ်ား အပါအဝင္၊ ဆိုးရြားေသာ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မွုမ်ား က်ဴးလြန္ခဲ့ေၾကာင္း၊ ဤကိစၥအား သတင္းတင္ျပခ်က္နည္းပါးေၾကာင္း အစီရင္ခံစာက အသားေပးေျပာၾကားခဲ့သည္။
ကခ်င္ႏွင့္ ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္တို႔တြင္ လက္နက္ကိုင္ တိုက္ပြဲမ်ား ျဖစ္ပ်က္ေနသည့္ အေျခအေနၾကားက၊ ေပၚေပါက္ခဲ့ေသာ ျဖစ္ရပ္အမ်ားအျပားကို မစ္ရွင္းမွ အတည္ျပဳနိုင္ခဲ့သည္။ ၎တို႔က အျပည္ျပည္ဆိုင္ရာ ဥပေဒမ်ားအား တစ္သမတ္မတ္ႏွင့္ တစ္ပုံစံတည္း ခ်ိဳးေဖာက္ခဲ့ေၾကာင္း အေသအခ်ာ ညႊန္ျပခဲ့သည္။ ျပည္သူျပည္သားမ်ားကို ပစ္မွတ္ခ်၍ စနစ္တက် စီးနင္းတိုက္ခိုက္ျခင္း၊ လူသားမ်ား၏ အသက္အိုးအိမ္၊ ပစၥည္းဥစၥာ ႏွင့္ က်န္းမာသုခတို႔ကို လုံးဝ ဥေပကၡာ မျပဳျခင္းတို႔ကို ရွိခဲ့ေၾကာင္း အစီရင္ခံစာက ေတြ႕ရွိခဲ့သည္။
သတ္ျဖတ္မွုမ်ား၊ လိင္ပိုင္းဆိုင္ရာ အၾကမ္းဖက္မွုမ်ား၊ တရားလက္လြတ္ဖမ္းဆီးျခင္းႏွင့္ ထိန္းသိမ္းျခင္း၊ လူမ်ား ေပ်ာက္ကြယ္သြားေအာင္ အတင္းအက်ပ္ျပဳျခင္း၊ ေခၽြးတပ္ဆြဲျခင္း၊ နယ္ေျမလုယူျခင္း ႏွင့္ ရြာမ်ားအား မီးရွို႔ဖ်က္ဆီးျခင္းတို႔ အပါအဝင္၊ တျခား က်ယ္ျပန္႔ ေသာ ခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မွုမ်ားအား တပ္မေတာ္၏ တိုက္ခိုက္မွုမ်ားက အေထာက္အကူျပဳခဲ့သည္။
အစိုးရမဟုတ္ေသာ လက္နက္ကိုင္အဖြဲ႕မ်ားမွ ခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မွုမ်ားႏွင့္ အလြဲသုံးစားမွုမ်ားလည္း ရွိခဲ့သည္ဟု မစ္ရွင္းက အတည္ျပဳခဲ့သည္။ ၎တို႔မွာ ကခ်င္ႏွင့္ ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္တို႔ရွိ တိုင္းရင္းသား လက္နက္ကိုင္ တပ္ဖြဲ႕မ်ား ႏွင့္ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ရွိ အာဆာတို႔ျဖစ္သည္။
မစ္ရွင္းသည္ ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံအတြင္း လုံးဝ ဝင္ေရာက္ခြင့္ မရခဲ့ေသာ္လည္း၊ မ်ားျပားလွေသာ အခ်က္အလက္မ်ားကို က်ဴးလြန္ခံရသူမ်ားႏွင့္ မ်က္ျမင္သက္ေသမ်ားႏွင့္ အေသးစိတ္ အင္တာဗ်ဴး (၈၇၅)ေက်ာ္၊ ၿဂိဳလ္တုပုံရိပ္မ်ား၊ အမွန္ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း အတည္ျပဳထားေသာ စာရြက္စာတမ္း၊ ဓာတ္ပုံမ်ားနဲ႔ ဗီဒီယိုဖိုင္မ်ား အပါအဝင္ပဓာန အရင္းအျမစ္မ်ားမွ စုေဆာင္းခဲ့သည္။ လိင္ပိုင္းဆိုင္ရာ ႏွင့္ က်ားမအေျချပဳ အၾကမ္းဖက္မွုမ်ားဆိုင္ရာ၊ စိတ္ပညာဆိုင္ရာ၊ စစ္တပ္ေရးရာႏွင့္ မွုခင္းေဆးပညာဆိုင္ရာ ကၽြမ္းက်င္ပညာရွင္မ်ား၏ အႀကံျပဳခ်က္မ်ားကို တိုင္ပင္ အသုံးျပဳခဲ့သည္။ ေသခ်ာမွန္ကန္ေၾကာင္း အတည္ျပဳၿပီးသား အေၾကာင္းအရာမ်ားကိုသာ အသုံးျပဳခဲ့သည္။ မစ္ရွင္းမွ ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္ နိုင္ငံ၊ အင္ဒိုနီးရွားနိုင္ငံ၊ မေလးရွားနိုင္ငံ၊ ထိုင္းနိုင္ငံ ႏွင့္ ယူေကတို႔အေရာက္ ကြင္းစင္းသြားလာခဲ့သည္။
အေသးစိတ္ အခ်က္အလက္မ်ား၊ တရားဥပေဒအရ ခြဲျခမ္းစိတ္ျဖာ လုပ္ထားခ်က္မ်ား ပါဝင္သည့္ အစီရင္ခံစာ အျပည့္အဝကို လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးေကာင္စီသို႔ စက္တင္ဘာလ (၁၈)ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ထုတ္ျပန္ တင္ျပသြားမည္ ျဖစ္သည္။ ၎အစီရင္ခံစာ အေသးစိတ္တြင္ ၿဂိဳလ္တုပုံရိပ္ အမ်ားအျပားပါဝင္မည္ ျဖစ္သည္။

Myanmar: Tatmadaw leaders must be investigated for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes – UN report

Myanmar: Tatmadaw leaders must be investigated for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes – UN report

GENEVA (27 August 2018) – Myanmar’s top military generals, including Commander-in-Chief Senior-General Min Aung Hlaing, must be investigated and prosecuted for genocide in the north of Rakhine State, as well as for crimes against humanity and war crimes in Rakhine, Kachin and Shan States, a report by the UN Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar* today urged.

The Mission, established by the UN Human Rights Council in March 2017, found patterns of gross human rights violations and abuses committed in Kachin, Rakhine and Shan States that “undoubtedly amount to the gravest crimes under international law”, principally by Myanmar’s military, the Tatmadaw, but also by other security forces.

“Military necessity would never justify killing indiscriminately, gang raping women, assaulting children, and burning entire villages. The Tatmadaw’s tactics are consistently and grossly disproportionate to actual security threats, especially in Rakhine State, but also in northern Myanmar,” the report states.

“They are shocking for the level of denial, normalcy and impunity that is attached to them. The Tatmadaw’s contempt for human life, integrity and freedom, and for international law generally, should be a cause of concern for the entire population.”

The crimes against humanity committed in Kachin, Shan and Rakhine States include murder; imprisonment; enforced disappearance; torture; rape, sexual slavery and other forms of sexual violence; persecution and enslavement. In addition, in Rakhine State, the elements of the crimes against humanity of extermination and deportation are also present.

The Mission also concluded “there is sufficient information to warrant the investigation and prosecution of senior officials in the Tatmadaw chain of command, so that a competent court can determine their liability for genocide in relation to the situation in Rakhine State.”

“The crimes in Rakhine State, and the manner in which they were perpetrated, are similar in nature, gravity and scope to those that have allowed genocidal intent to be established in other contexts,” the report states. “Factors pointing at such intent include the broader oppressive context and hate rhetoric; specific utterances of commanders and direct perpetrators; exclusionary policies, including to alter the demographic composition of Rakhine State; the level of organization indicating a plan for destruction; and the extreme scale and brutality of the violence.”

The Mission has drawn up a list of alleged perpetrators as priority subjects for investigation and prosecution, whom it believes had effective control and bear the greatest responsibility. Responsibility starts at the top, with the Tatmadaw Commander-in-Chief Senior-General Min Aung Hlaing. Five other military commanders are also named in the report: the Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Vice Senior-General Soe Win; the Commander, Bureau of Special Operations-3, Lieutenant-General Aung Kyaw Zaw; the Commander, Western Regional Military Command, Major-General Maung Maung Soe; the Commander, 33rd Light Infantry Division, Brigadier-General Aung Aung; the Commander, 99th Light Infantry Division, Brigadier-General Than Oo. A longer list of names will be kept in the custody of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and can be shared with any competent and credible body pursuing accountability in line with international norms and standards.

The report notes that civilian authorities had little scope to control the actions of the Tatmadaw. It also finds that “through their acts and omissions, the civilian authorities have contributed to the commission of atrocity crimes.”

“The State Counsellor, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, has not used her de facto position as Head of Government, nor her moral authority, to stem or prevent the unfolding events in Rakhine State,” the report states.

“Impunity is deeply entrenched in Myanmar’s political and legal system, effectively placing the Tatmadaw above the law,” the report states, adding that justice has therefore remained elusive for victims in the country for decades. “The impetus for accountability must come from the international community.”

The Mission called for the situation in Myanmar to be referred to the International Criminal Court or for an ad hoc international criminal tribunal to be created. In the interim, it called for an independent, impartial mechanism to collect, consolidate, preserve and analyse evidence of violations. It also recommended targeted individual sanctions against those who appear to be most responsible.

The report states that the massive violence and consequent mass exodus sparked by the events of 25 August 2017 – when the armed group, ARSA led attacks on military and security outposts across northern Rakhine State and the army responded with massive force – was “a catastrophe looming for decades”. The report notes that this was the inevitable result of “severe, systemic and institutionalized oppression from birth to death” and an exclusionary vision, including the persistent denial of citizenship and severe restrictions on freedom of movement. Against this backdrop, the violence in Rakhine State in 2012 created the conditions that led to large-scale violence in 2016 and the human rights crisis that unfolded in 2017.

The Mission documented mass killings, the scorching of Rohingya settlements and large-scale gang rape and other sexual violence by Tatmadaw soldiers. The poignant testimony of one survivor laid bare the monstrous extent of sexual violence: “I was lucky, I was only raped by three men,” she said. Rapes were often in public spaces in front of families, including children. The Mission also met many children with visible injuries matching accounts of being shot, stabbed or burned. Satellite imagery corroborates accounts of widespread, systematic, deliberate and targeted destruction, during which Rohingya populated-areas were burned down with nearby ethnic Rakhine settlements left unscathed.

“The Government and the Tatmadaw have fostered a climate in which hate speech thrives, human rights violations are legitimized, and incitement to discrimination and violence facilitated,” the report states. The Mission found numerous examples of hate speech and incitement to violence, including when in November 2012 a leading Rakhine political party cited Hitler, arguing that “inhuman acts” were sometimes necessary to “maintain a race”.

The security forces’ response to the ARSA attacks in August 2017 started within hours, “was immediate, brutal and grossly disproportionate”, suggesting “a level of preplanning and design” consistent with Commander-in-Chief Min Aung Hlaing’s stated vision to finish “the unfinished job” of solving “the long-standing Bengali problem”. The Mission also found that a large build-up of troops and other military assets across northern Rakhine had already begun in early August 2017.

The report also highlights serious human rights violations by security forces against the ethnic Rakhine, including sexual violence, noting that the pattern of violations against them is highly underreported.

In Kachin and Shan States, the Mission verified a number of incidents in the context of armed conflicts, confirming consistent patterns of violations of international law. The report finds that Tatmadaw operations in northern Myanmar are “characterized by systematic attacks directed at civilians” and conducted “in flagrant disregard for life, property and well-being of civilians.”

Such attacks serve as a catalyst for a wide range of other violations, including killings, sexual violence, arbitrary arrest and detention, enforced disappearances, forced labour, land grabbing, and the burning of villages. Tatmadaw operations have a devastating impact on the population.

The Mission also confirmed that violations and abuses were committed by non-State armed groups. This includes the “ethnic armed organizations” in Kachin and Shan States, and ARSA in Rakhine State.

While the Mission was never granted access to Myanmar, the team amassed a vast amount of information from primary sources, including through 875 in-depth interviews with victims and eyewitnesses, satellite imagery and authenticated documents, photographs and videos. Specialist advice was sought on sexual and gender-based violence, psychology, military affairs and forensics. Only verified and corroborated information was taken on board. The Mission travelled to Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and the United Kingdom.

A fuller report, containing detailed factual information and legal analysis will be published and presented to the Human Rights Council on 18 September. It will include a significant amount of satellite imagery analysis.


* Marzuki Darusman, a lawyer and human rights campaigner and former Attorney-General of Indonesia, is chair of the fact-finding mission. The other two members of the fact-finding mission are Radhika Coomaraswamy, a lawyer and former UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women and UN Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict; and Christopher Sidoti, an Australian human rights consultant, specializing in the international human rights system and in national human rights institutions.

Contact information: Nathan Thompson, +41 76 691 0799; Rolando Gomez, +41 79 477 4411, rgomez@ohchr.org; Helen Ardiff, +41 22 917 9218, hardiff@ohchr.org

To access the full report and supporting documentation visit – https://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/MyanmarFFM/Pages/ReportoftheMyanmarFFM.aspx

ကုလသမဂၢအတြင္းေရးမွဴးခ်ဳပ္ေဟာင္းကိုဖီအာနန္ကြယ္လြန္ျခင္းအတြက္ ကုလသမဂၢအတြင္းေရးမွဴးခ်ဳပ္၏ ေၾကညာခ်က္

ကုလသမဂၢအတြင္းေရးမွဴးခ်ဳပ္ေဟာင္းကိုဖီအာနန္ကြယ္လြန္ျခင္းအတြက္ ကုလသမဂၢအတြင္းေရးမွဴးခ်ဳပ္၏ ေၾကညာခ်က္

ကိုဖီအာနန္သည္ ဦးေဆာင္လမ္းျပ တြန္းအားေပးသူအျဖစ္ ေကာင္းက်ဳိးျပဳခဲ့သူျဖစ္သည္။  သူကြယ္လြန္သြားေၾကာင္း ၾကားသိရသည့္အတြက္ ကၽြႏ္ုပ္အေနျဖင့္ လြန္စြာ ဝမ္းနည္းေၾကကြဲမိပါသည္။  ကုိဖီအာနန္သည္ ကုလသမဂၢ၏ ပံုရိပ္ ျဖစ္ခဲ့ပါသည္။  သူသည္ ကုလသမဂၢတြင္ ရာထူးအဆင့္ဆင့္ တိုးျမွင့္ၿပီးတာဝန္ထမ္းေဆာင္ခဲ့ရာမွ တုႏိႈင္းမရႏိုင္ေသာ ဂုဏ္သိကၡာ၊ ဇြဲရွိရွိျဖင့္ အဖြဲ႕ႀကီးကို ေထာင္စုႏွစ္သစ္ထိ ဦးေဆာင္ႏိုင္ခဲ့ပါသည္။

လူအမ်ားစုကဲ့သို႔ပင္ ကိုဖီအာနန္အား မိတ္ေဆြေကာင္းတစ္ဦး၊ လမ္းညွႊန္ျပသူတစ္ဦးအျဖစ္ ကၽြႏ္ုပ္ ဂုဏ္ယူစြာ ေခၚဆိုခဲ့ေလ့ရွိပါသည္။  သူ၏ဦးေဆာင္မႈေအာက္တြင္ ကုလသမဂၢဒုကၡသည္မ်ားဆိုင္ရာ မဟာမင္းႀကီးအျဖစ္ တာဝန္ထမ္းေဆာင္ရန္ ကၽြႏ္ုပ္အား ယံုၾကည္ေရြးခ်ယ္ခန္႔ထားခဲ့ျခင္းအတြက္ ကၽြႏု္ပ္ လြန္စြာ ဂုဏ္ယူခဲ့ရပါသည္။  သူသည္ ကၽြႏ္ုပ္အတြက္ ေဆြးေႏြးလမ္းညႊန္မႈမ်ား၊ အႀကံဉာဏ္ေကာင္းမ်ား ရယူႏိုင္သည့္ ပုဂၢိဳလ္တစ္ဦးအျဖစ္ တည္ရွိေနခဲ့ပါသည္။  ကၽြႏ္ုပ္သည္ တစ္ဦးတည္းအျဖစ္ မခံစားခဲ့ရသည္ကို ကၽြႏ္ုပ္သိရွိေနခဲ့ပါသည္။ သူသည္ ေနရာေဒသတိုင္းမွ လူသားမ်ားအား ပါဝင္ေဆြးေႏြးႏိုင္ေသာ အေျခအေန၊ ျပႆနာအေျဖရွာႏိုင္ေသာ အခင္းအက်င္းႏွင့္ ပိုမိုေကာင္းမြန္ေသာ ကမၻာႀကီးသို႔ ဦးတည္ေနေသာ လမ္းေၾကာင္းကို ဖန္တီးေပးႏိုင္ခဲ့ပါသည္။  ဤရႈတ္ေထြးျပင္းထန္ၿပီး ႀကိဳးစားရုန္းကန္ေနရေသာ အခ်ိန္ကာလမ်ားတြင္ သူသည္ ကုလသမဂၢ ပဋိညာဥ္စာတမ္း၏ တန္ဖိုးမ်ားကုိ အသက္သြင္းရန္ ႀကိဳးပမ္းမႈကို မရပ္တန္႔ခဲ့ပါ။  သူ၏ေဆာင္ရြက္ခ်က္ အေမြအႏွစ္မ်ားသည္ ကၽြႏ္ုပ္တို႔အားလံုးအတြက္ စစ္မွန္ေသာ စိတ္အားထက္သန္မႈအျဖစ္ က်န္ရစ္ေနပါလိမ့္မည္။

ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းမႈႏွင့္ စာနာသနားျခင္းဆိုင္ရာ ကမၻာ့ခ်န္ပီယံျဖစ္လာခဲ့သည့္ အာဖရိက၏ ဂုဏ္ယူဖြယ္ သားေကာင္းတစ္ဦး ဆံုးရႈံးရသည့္အတြက္ ဝမ္းနည္းပူေဆြးၾကသူမ်ားအားလံုးႏွင့္ထပ္တူ ကၽြႏ္ုပ္ ဝမ္းနည္းေၾကကြဲမိပါသည္။

နယူးေယာက္ၿမိဳ႕၊ ၾသဂုတ္လ ၁၈ ရက္။