Author Archives: Wynn Lei Lei Than

Statement to the Human Rights Council by Mr. Nicholas Koumjian, Head of the Independent Investigative Mechanism for Myanmar

42nd Regular Session of the Human Rights Council

9 September 2019

Mr. President, Excellencies, It is an honor to present to the Council the initial report of the Independent Investigative Mechanism for Myanmar.

Last September, the Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar reported that it had found reasonable grounds to believe that very serious international crimes had been committed and called for the end to a cycle of impunity.  The same month, in Resolution 39/2, the Council responded by establishing this Mechanism with the mandate “to collect, consolidate, preserve and analyse evidence of the most serious international crimes and violations of international law committed in Myanmar since 2011” and to build criminal case files for potential use in national, regional or international courts.  The General Assembly welcomed the establishment of the Mechanism in resolution 73/264.

I am grateful to the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Ms. Michelle Bachelet, and the United Nations Legal Counsel, Mr. Miguel de Serpa Soares, and their Offices, for implementing the necessary preliminary steps to establish the Mechanism.  Following their efforts, the Secretary-General formally deemed the Mechanism operational on 30 August this year and on 6 September we began the process of transferring information collected by the Fact-Finding Mission to the Mechanism.

Mr. President, Excellencies, Allow me to explain a bit how I intend to approach the task ahead.  First, I will always respect the specific mandate conferred by this Council.  The Mechanism will strive to obtain and analyze information that sheds light on whether there is proof, to the high standards required in criminal cases, that individuals are responsible for serious international crimes.  Our mandate is distinct from that of the Fact-Finding Mission and other UN entities working on Myanmar.  The Mechanism’s role is not to advocate policies.  Rather it is to facilitate fair and independent criminal proceedings.

While the mandate is limited in purpose, it is massive in scale, covering the entire territory of Myanmar since 2011.  We will vigorously pursue accountability for crimes irrespective of the race, ethnicity, nationality, religion or political affiliation of either the victims or the perpetrators.  While we do not have the capacity to investigate every alleged crime, we will seek to select cases that are appropriately representative of the suffering inflicted upon the various peoples of Myanmar.

I will also seek to balance the Mechanism’s obligation to report to this Council and to keep civil society and victims informed, with the need to maintain the integrity and confidentiality of the work.  Public outreach is essential, but in criminal cases, speaking too openly about strategies and progress could compromise investigations.

Finally, I wish to stress that the success of the Mechanism will be dependent on the cooperation and support of Member States. Obviously, access to Myanmar would greatly facilitate the search for the truth about alleged crimes.  I have made multiple attempts to engage with the Government of Myanmar and moving forward, I will continue to reach out and seek a cooperative relationship.

The cooperation of other states in the region is also critical. Many witnesses with relevant information are located in or pass through their territory.  It is important that while respecting these governments’ sovereignty and relevant concerns, the Mechanism has the ability to work within these States in a manner that does not endanger witnesses or sources.

I plan to travel to the region in the coming months to engage with the relevant Member States on modes of cooperation and to take the opportunity to meet with victim and civil society groups to explain the Mechanism’s mandate and listen to their suggestions.

Mr. President, Excellencies, for the past 19 years I’ve prosecuted war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide cases from Bosnia, Sierra Leone, East Timor and   Cambodia.  I’ve seen that achieving justice for mass crimes is a long and difficult journey.  At the Khmer Rouge Tribunal in Cambodia, just last year we obtained convictions for crimes committed in the 1970’s, over four decades after the crimes were committed.

In that and other cases, I have seen that no matter how much time passes, the victims’ desire for justice does not waver.  Survivors consistently express similar desires.  First, they want a chance to recount their experiences, and seek some official recognition of the truth of what happened to them.  Second, they want to see the perpetrators’ behaviour condemned and those most responsible held to account.  This Council took an important step towards fulfilling the hopes of victims by creating this Mechanism.

Yet, I believe there is an even more important benefit. The temporal mandate of the Mechanism has no end date and extends to any crimes committed tomorrow, next year, and on into the future.    I believe that every single member of this Council wants to see the end of violence against innocent civilians and a peaceful Myanmar where all parts of the population contribute to the country’s development.  The establishment of this Mechanism makes a small but important contribution towards that end.  It deters crimes by sending this message to all armed entities in Myanmar: “We are watching and will work to ensure that those who commit crimes will be brought to account.”

I am grateful to the Council for the responsibility of this historic mandate, and to the Secretary-General for entrusting me to lead it forward.

Thank you.

Statement by the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator, a.i., Knut Ostby (English version below)

Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator, Republic of the Union of Myanmar

ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံဆိုင္ရာ ယာယီ ကုလသမဂၢဌာေနကိုယ္စားလွယ္ႏွင့္ လူသားခ်င္းစာနာေရးရာညႇိႏိႈင္းေရးမွဴး

ခႏြတ္ေအာ့ဒ္စဘီ၏ ထုတ္ျပန္ေၾကျငာခ်က္

(ရန္ကုန္၊ ၂၀၁၉ခုႏွစ္ ၾသဂုတ္လ ၁၉ ရက္) ။ ။ ယေန႔ကို ကမၻာ့လူသားခ်င္းစာနာမႈဆိုင္ရာေန႔ အျဖစ္သတ္မွတ္ထားၿပီး ပဋိပကၡမ်ားတြင္ ပိတ္မိေနသူမ်ားအား ကယ္တင္ရန္ ႏွင့္ ၎တို႕၏ဘ၀မ်ား ပိုမို တိုးတက္ေကာင္းမြန္ေစရန္အတြက္ မၾကာခဏ မိမိအသက္ကိုရင္း၍ ေဆာင္ရြက္ေနၾကေသာ လူသားခ်င္း စာနာမႈလုပ္ေဆာင္သူမ်ားအား ဂုဏ္ျပဳသည္႕ႏွစ္ပတ္လည္ေန႔လည္းျဖစ္ပါသည္။

ႏိုင္ငံတကာတြင္ သဘာဝေဘးေၾကာင့္ျဖစ္ေစ၊ လက္္နက္ကိုင္ပဋိပကၡေၾကာင့္ျဖစ္ေစ အကူအညီလိုအပ္ေနသူ မ်ားကိုအစားအစာ၊ ေရ၊ က်န္းမာေရးဝန္ေဆာင္မႈနဲ႔ အျခားအေရးပါေသာ အေထာက္အပံ့မ်ား ပ့ံပိုးကူညီေနေသာ လူသားခ်င္းစာနာမႈလုပ္ေဆာင္သူအင္အား၏ ၄၀ ရာခိုင္ႏႈန္းခန္႔ရွိ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားကုိ ယခုႏွစ္တြင္ အထူးဂုဏ္ျပဳ လိုပါသည္။

ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံသည္ အဆံုးမရွိေသာ အလားအလာေကာင္းမ်ား၊ အလ်င္အျမန္ေျပာင္းလဲေနမႈမ်ားႏွင့္ ႀကံဳေတြ႔ေန ရၿပီး ရႈပ္ေထြးေသာ လူသားခ်င္းစာနာမႈ အခက္အခဲမ်ားကိုလည္း ဆက္လက္ ရင္ဆိုင္ ေတြ႕ႀကံဳေနရပါသည္။ ရာသီဥတုေျပာင္းလဲမႈေၾကာင့္ မၾကာခဏျဖစ္ေပၚေသာ ဆိုင္ကလုန္းမုန္တိုင္းမ်ား၊ အပ်က္အစီး မ်ားျပားေ သာ ေရႀကီးမႈမ်ား၊ ငလ်င္ျပတ္ေရြ႕တေလွ်ာက္ၿမိဳ႕ႀကီးမ်ား တည္ရွိေနျခင္းစသည့္ အခ်က္မ်ားေၾကာင့္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ သည္ ကမၻာေပၚ တြင္ သဘာဝေဘးထိခိုက္ခံစားရႏိုင္ေျခအမ်ားဆံုးႏိုင္ငံမ်ားထဲမွ တစ္ႏိုင္ငံအျဖစ္ရွိေနပါသည္။

လြတ္လပ္ေရးရၿပီးသည္႕အခ်ိန္မွစတင္ကာ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏အခ်ဳိ႕ေနရာေဒသမ်ားတြင္ လက္နက္ကိုင္ ပဋိပကၡ မ်ားႏွင့္ ေတာက္ေလွ်ာက္နီးပါးၾကံဳေတြ႔ေနခဲ့ရၿပီး ကခ်င္၊ ရွမ္း၊ ရခိုင္ႏွင့္ ကရင္ျပည္နယ္မ်ားတြင္ အိုးအိမ္စြန္႔ခြာ ေနရပ္ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္းရသူ ျပည္သူအနည္းဆံုး ႏွစ္သိန္းခြဲခန္႔ရွိေနပါသည္။ ထို႕အျပင္ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္၌ ႏွစ္ရွည္လမ်ား မၿငိမ္မသက္ျဖစ္မႈမ်ားေၾကာင့္ ၂၀၁၇ ၾသဂုတ္လတြင္ အမ်ိဳးသား၊ အမ်ိဳးသမီးနဲ႔ ကေလးသူငယ္ ၇၄၀,၀၀၀ ေက်ာ္ အစုလိုက္အၿပံဳလိုက္ ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္ နယ္စပ္ကိုျဖတ္ေက်ာ္တိမ္းေရွာင္ခဲ့ရၿပီး လက္ရွိ ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္တြင္ ဒုကၡ သည္ တသန္းခန္႔ရွိေနပါသည္။ ယခုႏွစ္ဆန္းပိုင္းမွစ၍ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္တြင္ သီးျခားပဋိပကၡႀကီးတခု ျဖစ္လာ ခဲ့ၿပီး ေထာင္ေပါင္းမ်ားစြာေသာျပည္သူမ်ားအား ေနရပ္စြန္႔ခြာေစခဲ့ပါသည္။

၂၀၁၉ ခုႏွစ္အတြင္း လူသားခ်င္းစာနာမႈအကူအညီ လိုအပ္သည္႕ လူေပါင္း ၉၀၀,၀၀၀ ေက်ာ္ရွိသည့္ ျမန္မာ ႏိုင္ငံတြင္ ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ခ်က္မ်ားရွင္သန္ေစျခင္း၊ ဂုဏ္သိကၡာျပန္လည္ ျမင့္မားေစျခင္းႏွင့္ အသက္ေပါင္းမ်ားစြာ ကယ္တင္ျခင္းတို႔အတြက္ ႏိုင္ငံတဝန္း လူသားခ်င္းစာနာမႈလုပ္ေဆာင္သူမ်ား၏ အခန္းက႑သည္ အလြန္ အေရးၾကီးပါသည္။ ထို႕အျပင္ ေဒသခံျပည္သူမ်ားႏွင့္ ေဒသခံအဖြဲ႔အစည္းမ်ားသည္ လူသားခ်င္းစာနာ တုံ႔ျပန္  ေဆာင္ရြက္ရာတြင္ ေရွ႕တန္းက ရပ္တည္ေဆာင္ရြက္လ်က္ရွိရာ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားကလည္း ေရွ႕မ်က္ႏွာစာက ပါ၀င္ေဆာင္ရြက္ေနၾကသည္ကို မၾကာခဏဆိုသလို ေတြ႔ျမင္ရပါသည္။

ဥပမာအားျဖင့္ အလြန္ခက္ခဲေသာအေျခအေနမ်ားျဖင့္ ရင္ဆိုင္ႀကံဳေတြ႔ေနရေသာ ေနရပ္စြန္႔ခြာတိမ္းေရွာင္ သူမ်ားစခန္းမ်ားတြင္ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားသည္ လုပ္အားေပးဆရာမမ်ားအေနျဖင့္ ပံုမွန္ပညာသင္ၾကားခြင့္ မရေသာ ကေလးမ်ားအတြက္ အေျခခံပညာေရး ဝန္ေဆာင္မႈ ေပးျခင္းမ်ိဳးျဖစ္ပါသည္။ မြန္ျပည္နယ္တြင္လည္း လတ္တေလာေရႀကီးမႈမ်ားေၾကာင့္ နီးစပ္ရာေက်းရြာမ်ားမွ ေရေဘးေရွာင္လာသူ ေဆြမ်ိဳးမ်ားကိုသာမက သူစိမ္း မ်ားကိုပင္ မိမိတို႔အိမ္မွာေပးေနေစသူ၊ ေရေဘးေရွာင္ရာတြင္ကူညီေပးသူ၊ ႏွစ္သိမ့္ေပးသူ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ား ကို ကနဦး လူသားခ်င္းစာနာ  တု႔ံျပန္ေဆာင္ရြက္သူမ်ားအျဖစ္ ေတြ႔ျမင္ရမည္ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ဤအရာမ်ားထက္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံသားမ်ား၏ ႀကံ႕ၾကံ႔ခံႏိုင္စြမ္းႏွင့္သဒၶါတရားကို ပိုၿပီးျမင္သာေအာင္ ေဖာ္ျပႏိုင္မည့္အရာရွိမည္ မထင္ပါ။ ကုလသမဂၢႏွင့္အတူ အစိုးရမဟုတ္ေသာ လူသားခ်င္းစာနာမႈဆိုင္ရာ လုပ္ငန္းေဖာ္မ်ားကလည္း ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံသားမ်ားႏွင့္အတူ ဂုဏ္ယူစြာ ကူညီလုပ္ေဆာင္ၾကမည္ျဖစ္ပါသည္။

ယေန႔တြင္ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔သည္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံႏွင့္ ကမၻာတဝန္းရွိ လူသားခ်င္းစာနာမႈလုပ္ေဆာင္ေနသူမ်ား၏ ရဲဝံ့ စြန္႔စားမႈ၊ လုပ္ငန္းအေပၚႏွစ္ျမွဳပ္လုပ္ေဆာင္မႈမ်ားကို ေက်းဇူးတင္ေၾကာင္း ထပ္ေလာင္းေျပာၾကားရင္း အကူ အညီလိုအပ္ေနသူမ်ားကိုကာကြယ္၊ေထာက္ပံ့ရာတြင္ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ား၏ အေရးပါေသာ အခန္းက႑ကိုမီး  ေမာင္ထိုးျပလိုပါသည္။ လူသားခ်င္းစာနာမႈလုပ္ေဆာင္ေနသူမ်ားအား ကာကြယ္ေပးရန္၊ ေလးစားရန္ႏွင့္ ၎တို႔၏ အသက္ကယ္လုပ္ငန္းမ်ားကို အားလံုးက ဝိုင္းဝန္းကူညီေပးၾကရန္ ထပ္မံတိုက္တြန္းလိုက္ရပါသည္။

Statement by the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator, a.i., Knut Ostby

Yangon, 19 August 2019

Today we mark World Humanitarian Day, an annual event that honours humanitarian workers, who often risk their own lives to help save and improve the lives of others caught up in crisis.

This year we pay special tribute to the women who make up an estimated 40 per cent of the global humanitarian work force, providing food, water, healthcare and other essentials to those in greatest need, whether because of natural disasters or armed conflict.

Myanmar is a country with endless potential, undergoing rapid change, which continues to grapple with complex humanitarian challenges. It is among the most disaster-prone countries in the world, with climate change expected to contribute to even more frequent cyclones and more destructive flooding, and with major cities along earthquake fault lines.

Parts of the country have experienced near-continuous armed conflict since independence, and at least one quarter of a million people are currently internally displaced from their homes in Kachin, Shan, Rakhine and Kayin states. In addition, years of successive waves of violence in Rakhine spiked in August 2017, triggering an exodus of more than 740,000 men, women and children who fled across the border into Bangladesh, where nearly 1 million are now refugees. Since the beginning of this year, Rakhine has seen a major escalation of a separate conflict, forcing tens of thousands of other people from their homes.

With more than 900,000 people in need of humanitarian assistance in Myanmar in 2019, humanitarian workers play a critical role across the country, saving lives, restoring dignity and providing hope. And time and time again we see that it is local communities and local organizations that serve as the first line of response, often with women at the forefront.

This includes, for example, women working as volunteer teachers in the most challenging circumstances in IDP camps, providing basic education for children where formal schooling no longer exists. It refers to the women first responders in Mon State in recent weeks, supporting evacuations and providing comfort, sometimes taking in relatives and even strangers who have fled nearby villages engulfed by floodwaters. There may be no clearer demonstration of the generosity and resilience of the Myanmar people, and the United Nations and our NGO partners are proud to work side-by-side with them.

Today, we reiterate our appreciation for the bravery and commitment of humanitarian workers in Myanmar and around the world, and highlight in particular the essential role women play in assisting and protecting those in greatest need. We recall that humanitarian workers themselves should be respected and protected, and that their life-saving work should be facilitated by all.

Launching Ceremony of National Earthquake Preparedness and Response Plan

Thingaha Hotel, Naypyitaw, 6 August 2019

Opening Remarks by Mr. Knut Ostby

United Nations Resident Coordinator/Humanitarian Coordinator (a.i)


Excellency U Henry Van Thio, Vice President of the Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, and Chairperson of the National Disaster Management Committee

Honourable Union Ministers, Members of the National Disaster Management Committee

Representatives of Disaster Management Committees from States and Regions,

Representatives of United Nations Agencies, Development Partners

Members of the Myanmar Earthquake Committee and DRR Working Group

Distinguished Guests, ladies and gentlemen,

MInglabar and Good Morning


It is a great privilege to join all of you at this auspicious Launching Ceremony of the National Earthquake Preparedness and Response Plan.

As you are all aware, Myanmar is prone to many types of natural hazards, such as cyclones, storm surges, earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, floods and droughts.

In fact, Myanmar was ranked 3rd in the world in the 2017 Global Climate Risk Index which measures the impact of natural disasters and extreme weather events.

The Myanmar Sustainable Development Plan (MSDP) clearly spells out the strong linkages between natural disasters, human development outcomes and attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals. Natural Disasters everywhere stall and often even reverse hard won development gains by causing loss of lives, destruction of invaluable infrastructure including community assets and livelihoods of people. Recovery from disaster puts significant pressure on a country’s financial and human resources.

I would therefore like to commend and applaud the Government of Myanmar’s efforts to address the threat of natural disasters and climate change associated risks through the strengthening of its national legal and policy instruments, and its active participation in, and contribution, to regional and global efforts anchored in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030). The United Nations here in Myanmar has been very happy to provide technical assistance for the development of these new legal and policy instruments such as the 2017 Myanmar Action Plan on Disaster Risk Reduction (MAPDRR). One of the main pillars of the MAPDRR is to strengthen disaster risk governance to reduce and manage risk in Myanmar.

Myanmar is also a party to the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER) signed in 2005, which provides a basis for ASEAN countries to jointly respond to disaster emergencies. With all these developments, Myanmar people are today much more aware and better prepared for natural disasters.  But more can be done.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

As you are aware, Myanmar is highly prone to the risk of earthquakes, due to its location on one of the two main earthquake belts of the world – the Sagaing Fault. And records show that the country has experienced major earthquakes historically and continues to experience smaller earthquakes on a regular basis (for example Myanmar has experienced 48 small earthquakes in the last year, mostly less than magnitude 5, according to an earthquake tracking website). The most recent large earthquake with magnitude 6.8 occurred near Chauk in August 2016. It caused significant damage to historical pagodas in Bagan, and one man was killed when a building collapsed.

Earthquakes are different from other natural disasters. They can occur at any time, and without any warning. Big earthquakes are destructive, and can be catastrophic especially if people are unprepared. Earthquake risks in urban areas increase along with the growing urban population in the major cities with weak urban settings and infrastructure.

Excellency, Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen,

It is encouraging to note the impressive progress Myanmar has made in building its national capacities in terms of both earthquake preparedness and response. For this, I would like to acknowledge the leadership of the Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement. Under the guidance of the National Disaster Management Committee, the National Earthquake Preparedness and Response Plan, which will be launched today, has been developed through a highly consultative process which started in December 2017.  The process has included government departments, development partners, UN agencies, NGOs, professional bodies like the Myanmar Earthquake Committee, Myanmar Engineering Societies and the DRR Working Group.

A National Level Earthquake Simulation Exercise was organized in February 2018 to test the draft Standard Operating Procedures for Earthquake Response, and adjustments were made to the Plan to address the gaps identified and to further strengthen response mechanisms.  I hope that the exercise will be continued at regular intervals so that all stakeholders remain aware of their roles and responsibilities.

Excellency, Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen,

The National Earthquake Preparedness and Response Plan is a very important plan for Myanmar. It empowers and strengthens the preparedness measures and response functions of the National Disaster Management Committee. It also outlines the response functions for the Committee and its work committees at different phases of the response. The Plan’s vision is to minimize damage to property, reduce injury and lives lost, and normalize the lives of those affected in a timely manner.

I would like to congratulate the National Disaster Management Committee, under the leadership of the Vice President U Henry Van Thio, for the successful development of the Plan.

The United Nations has been happy to support the development of this plan, and I would like to note the key role that UNDP has played, together with the Department of Disaster Management from the Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement, in providing technical assistance to develop the plan. The United Nations remains committed to strengthening this partnership with the Department of Disaster Management.

Let me also express my sincere appreciation to the European Commission-European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (ECHO) for providing funding to support the development of the plan.

Finally, let me also thank the members of the DRR Working Group, the Myanmar Earthquake Committee, and the Myanmar Engineering Society for your commitment and valuable inputs.  We look forward to witnessing how this Plan will benefit the people of Myanmar and support the country in building earthquake resilience.

Thank you again for joining us to today to celebrate the launch of this important document.




UN Fact-Finding Mission to Hold Press Briefing in Jakarta

GENEVA (2 August 2019) – The UN Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar will hold a press conference in Jakarta on 5 August 2019 to brief the media about their latest work, including their upcoming report on the economic interests of Myanmar’s military.

The briefing will be led by Mission Chair Marzuki Darusman and fellow Expert Christopher Sidoti, who are in Indonesia as part of a working visit. It will take place Monday at 12:00 noon Jakarta time (07:00 Geneva time) at the United Nations, Menara Thamrin Building, Papua Room, Level 7, JL MH Thamrin Kav 3, Jakarta, 10250.

The full report, as well as infographics, audio-visual materials, and summary translations in the Myanmar language, will be posted Monday at 12:00 noon Jakarta time (07:00 a.m. Geneva time) on the Fact-Finding Mission’s Web page:

The Mission is scheduled to present its final report to the UN Human Rights Council on 16 September 2019.



The Human Rights Council on 24 March 2017 decided (through Resolution A/HRC/RES/34/22) to dispatch urgently an independent international fact-finding mission, appointed by the President of the Human Rights Council, to establish the facts and circumstances of the alleged recent human rights violations by military and security forces, and abuses, in Myanmar, in particular in Rakhine State, including but not limited to arbitrary detention, torture and inhuman treatment, rape and other forms of sexual violence, extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary killings, enforced disappearances, forced displacement and unlawful destruction of property, with a view to ensuring full accountability for perpetrators and justice for victims.

The Experts 

Marzuki Darusman, lawyer and human rights campaigner and former Attorney-General of Indonesia, is chair of the fact-finding mission. The other two members of the fact-finding mission are Radhika Coomaraswamy, a lawyer and former UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women and UN Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict; and Christopher Sidoti, an international human rights lawyer and former Australian Human Rights Commissioner.

For more information and media requests, please contact: Todd Pitman in Jakarta/Bangkok (Mobile: +66 63 216 9080 /, or Rolando Gómez in Geneva (Tel: +41 22 917 4411 or +41 79 477 4411 /

Coffee Growers in Myanmar Receive a Fair Deal

Moe Ohn cannot stop grinning as she picks the ruby-red coffee beans of the bushes in Shan State.  The future after all, seems much brighter. Moe Ohn, who is from Htant Hpa Yar village in Hopong township, belongs to a cooperative: Green Gold. Thanks to the hard work of farmers like Moe Ohn, yesterday, Green Gold learned that they had been awarded Fairtrade Certification – the first coffee cooperative in Myanmar to do so.

Green Gold was founded in 2015 with the support of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the governments of Finland, Germany and Switzerland. Green Gold is located in Southern Shan state, a region known for conflict and being one of the highest producers of opium in the world. Green Gold is made of almost 1000 small-scale farmers who used to grow opium. They come from both the Shan and Pao ethnic groups, who have historically been in conflict with one another. Today though, these farmers, including Moe Ohn, are working together to grow high quality arabica coffee beans.

 Ma Moe Ohn picks her coffee , Source: G. Dun, UNODC

This coffee is going places, literally.  The coffee Moe Ohn and her fellow farmers have picked, was served at the Parliament in France this March. Green Gold has partnered with Malongo, a French coffee company to sell the coffee in Europe.

For Moe Ohn and her family, Fairtrade certification guarantees they receive a fair price for their coffee. The farmers also receive an additional premium which can be used as direct investment for social benefits (schools, roads, health centers, etc.) in their communities. This premium can also be invested for the strengthening of the cooperative itself or to improve the productive conditions.

  Representatives to the 2018 General Assembly Gather at the Green Gold Warehouse in Taunggyi,  Source: J. Perez, UNODC

All the farmers have the same responsibilities, same decision power and the same number of votes. All members must know what the aim of the cooperative is and know basic principles of Fairtrade standards.  They are involved in all steps of the production, since cooperatives must provide services to its members, including processing facilities, technical assistance and help to sell the final product. The empowerment of members and reaching financial autonomy of the cooperative is key.

Moe Ohn, and other women in the cooperative like Moe Du, Nang Htwe and Nang Lon, directly benefit from Fairtrade certification.  Under Fairtrade conditions, women are empowered and there is progress towards gender equity in all the levels of the organization and on the farms. Their children will not be subject to work in the fields; after all, Fairtrade encourages the protection of the children and prohibits child labour.  Fairtrade promotes the teamwork with human values as such solidarity, responsibility and the compliance of the norms among others. Environmental and health issues are reduced because there is an increase in knowledge and awareness about the proper management of chemicals in the plantations.

“We in UNODC are thrilled that Green Gold has received the certification and recognize the importance of working with farmers to develop sustainable livelihood alternatives to opium poppy cultivation”, says Troels Vester, Country Manager of UNODC Myanmar. In addition to supporting the cooperative to achieve the Fairtrade conditions required for certification, UNODC has also supported the farmers to obtain of land ownership certificates including women’s access to land ownership, and forestry education. Opium farming caused severe deforestation in Shan State, so UNODC has worked to educate farmers on sustainable forest management and reforesting 700 hectares of valuable forest species.

For the coffee aficionado, Fairtrade provides an assurance that the coffee that is consumed is ethical and traceable. All coffee is sourced from the cooperative’s members and the quality is guaranteed. Fairtrade certification promote organic agriculture, agroforestry systems and they prohibit dangerous pesticides and GMO products.

 Khun Chit Tin, Quality Manager of Green Gold, inspects the coffee before shipment, Source: J. Perez, UNODC

For the farmers in the Shan State, they now have an alternative to growing opium, a produce that had given Shan State a bad name.  Fairtrade helps to meet a number of the Sustainable Development Goals, including Goal 1: No Poverty, Goal 5: Gender Equality, Goal 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth, Goal 12 Responsible Consumption and Production, and Goal 16 Peace Justice and Strong Institutions.  For producers as well as consumers, contributing to Fairtrade is a badge of honour.  The small-scale farmers benefit from trading and farming practices that they have not experienced before.  For the consumer, it is a responsible way of helping to contribute to more sustainable livelihoods and a cleaner environment. Waking up to smell Myanmar coffee now has a deeper meaning and an uplifting aroma.  The coffee that Moe Ohn produces is ready to take on the world by storm.


Statement attributable to the Spokesman for the Secretary-General on the 2018 Children and Armed Conflict Report

The Secretary-General is disheartened at the increasing level of grave violations committed against children, as documented in the 2018 Annual Report on Children and Armed Conflict. Last year, the United Nations verified more than 24,000 grave violations committed against children, while thousands of others were pending verification due to resources and access constraints. In the reporting period, girls and boys have again borne the brunt of new and protracted crisis and endured such violations as killing and maiming, recruitment and use by armed forces and armed groups, abduction, sexual violence, attacks on schools and hospitals and the denial of humanitarian access.

The Secretary-General is particularly appalled at the number of children killed or maimed in the 20 country situations on the Children and Armed Conflict agenda last year, which has reached more than 12,000 boys and girls, an unprecedented level.

The Secretary-General urges all parties to conflict to strengthen their engagement with the United Nations and reminds them of their responsibility to protect children.  Parties must ensure compliance with their obligations under international law, including the special respect and protection accorded to children affected by armed conflict by international humanitarian law.  In the conduct of hostilities, parties to conflict must refrain from directing attacks against civilians, including children, and civilian objects. He reiterates that peace remains the best protection for children affected by armed conflict and calls on all parties and those who can influence them to work towards political agreements and solutions to resolve existing conflicts.

The Secretary-General commends the engagement of his Special Representative, her office and each country team with parties to conflict to end and prevent grave violations, resulting in tangible measures benefitting children in several contexts.

Farhan Haq, Deputy Spokesman for the Secretary-General

New York, 30 July 2019


For the text of the full report, please go to the link:

Remarks by Mr. Knut Ostby, United Nations Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator in Myanmar Nay Pyi Taw, 11 July 2019

၂၀၁၉ ခုႏွစ္ ကမၻာ့လူဦးေရေန႕ အထိမ္းအမွတ္အခမ္းအနားတြင္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံဆိုင္ရာ ကုလသမဂၢ ဌာနညႇိႏိႈင္းေရးမွဴးႏွင့္ လူသားခ်င္းစာနာေထာက္ထားမႈဆိုင္ရာ ညႇိႏိႈင္းေရးမွဴး မစၥတာကႏြတ္ေအာ့စ္ဘီ ေျပာၾကားသည့္ မိန္႕ခြန္း

ေနျပည္ေတာ္၊ ၂၀၁၉ ခုႏွစ္၊ ဇူလိုင္လ ၁၁ ရက္

 ေဆာင္ပုဒ္ – ကတိကဝတ္မ်ားကို အရွိန္အဟုန္ျမႇင့္ျဖည့္ဆည္းလို႔ ၂၅ ႏွစ္ေျမာက္ ICPD ကို ဂုဏ္ျပဳစို႔”

  • ေလးစားအပ္ပါေသာ ျပည္ေထာင္စုသမၼတျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၊ ဒုတိယသမၼတ ဦးျမင့္ေဆြ၊
  • အလုပ္သမား၊ လူဝင္မႈႀကီးၾကပ္ေရးႏွင့္ ျပည္သူ႕အင္အား ဝန္ႀကီးဌာန၊ ျပည္ေထာင္စုဝန္ႀကီး ဦးသိန္းေဆြ၊
  • ျပည္ေထာင္စုဝန္ႀကီးမ်ား၊
  • အႀကီးတန္းအစိုးရအရာရွိမ်ား၊
  • UNFPA ကိုယ္စားလွယ္ မစၥတာရာမန္ေနသန္ဘာလာခရစ္ရွ္နန္၊
  • ကုလသမဂၢအဖြဲ႕အစည္းမ်ားမွ လုပ္ေဖာ္ကိုင္ဖက္မ်ား၊
  • ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးမႈမိတ္ဖက္မ်ား၊
  • ဧည့္သည္ေတာ္ႀကီးမ်ားခင္ဗ်ာ၊

မဂၤလာနံနက္ခင္းပါ၊ မဂၤလာပါ။

ကေန႕ က်င္းပတဲ့ ၂၀၁၉ ခုႏွစ္အတြက္ ကမၻာ့လူဦးေရေန႕ အထိမ္းအမွတ္အခမ္းအနားမွာ အားလံုးနဲ႕အတူ တက္ေရာက္ ဆင္ႏႊဲခြင့္ရတဲ့အတြက္ အလြန္ပဲ ဝမ္းသာဂုဏ္ယူမိပါတယ္။ ယခုႏွစ္ ကမၻာ့လူဦးေရေန႕ရဲ႕ အေရးႀကီးလွတဲ့ ေဆာင္ပုဒ္ ကေတာ့ ကတိကဝတ္မ်ားကို အရွိန္အဟုန္ျမႇင့္ျဖည့္ဆည္းလို႔ ၂၅ ႏွစ္ေျမာက္ ICPD ကို ဂုဏ္ျပဳစို႔” ဆိုတာပဲ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

လြန္ခဲ့တဲ့ ၂၅ ႏွစ္၊ ၁၉၉၄ ခုႏွစ္ စက္တင္ဘာလမွာ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံဟာ အီဂ်စ္ႏိုင္ငံ၊ ကိုင္ရိုၿမိဳ႕က အစျပဳတဲ့ ကမၻာလံုးဆိုင္ရာ ေတာ္လွန္ေရးႀကီးမွာ ပါဝင္လက္တဲြခဲ့ပါတယ္။ အဲဒါကေတာ့ ကမၻာ့ေခါင္းေဆာင္ ၁၇၉ ဦးဟာ လူဦးေရနဲ႕ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈ ဆိုင္ရာ ႏိုင္ငံတကာညီလာခံ ICPD ႀကီးမွာ စုေဝးတိုင္ပင္ေဆြးေႏြးၾကၿပီး လြတ္လပ္တဲ့၊ တာဝန္သိတဲ့ မ်ိဳးဆက္ပြားျခင္း ဆိုင္ရာ ေရြးခ်ယ္မႈေတြကို ျပဳလုပ္ႏုိင္ျခင္းဟာ လူတိုင္း ရရွိခံစားပိုင္ခြင့္ရွိတဲ့ လူ႕အခြင့္အေရးတစ္ရပ္ျဖစ္တယ္ဆိုတာ အသိ အမွတ္ျပဳခဲ့ၾကတာပဲ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ အဲဒီညီလာခံႀကီးမွာ ကမၻာ့ေခါင္းေဆာင္ေတြဟာ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ား စြမ္းေဆာင္ရည္ျမႇင့္တင္ ေရး၊ ရပိုင္ခြင့္မ်ား၊ လိင္ပိုင္းဆိုင္ရာနဲ႕ မ်ိဳးဆက္ပြားက်န္းမာေရးတို႔ဟာ စဥ္ဆက္မျပတ္ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးနဲ႕ ခ်ိတ္ဆက္ ေဆာင္ရြက္မဲ့ ကမၻာလံုးဆိုင္ရာ လုပ္ငန္းအစီအစဥ္တစ္ခုကို ေထာက္ခံအတည္ျပဳခဲ့ၾကပါတယ္။

ဒုတိယသမၼတနဲ႕တကြ ျပည္ေထာင္စုဝန္ႀကီးမ်ား၊ ဂုဏ္သေရရွိလူႀကီးမင္းမ်ားခင္ဗ်ာ၊ အေရးပါလွတဲ့ ေျပာင္းလဲမႈႀကီးတစ္ခု ျဖစ္တဲ့ ICPD သေဘာတူညီခ်က္ဟာ အစိုးရမ်ားနဲ႕ မ်ိဳးဆက္ပြားက်န္းမာေရး လႈပ္ရွားမႈေတြအတြက္ ႀကီးမားတဲ့ ေအာင္ျမင္ မႈတစ္ခု ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ သမိုင္းမွာ ပထဆံုးအႀကိမ္အျဖစ္ ICPD ဟာ လူဦးေရဆိုင္ရာ ရည္မွန္းခ်က္ေတြကေန လူသားေတြ ရဲ႕ဘဝအတြက္ ဦးတည္ခ်က္ကို ေျပာင္းလဲခဲ့ပါတယ္။ မိသားစုစီမံကိန္းအေကာင္းအထည္ေဖာ္ေရး၊ မ်ိဳးဆက္ပြား က်န္းမာေရး၀န္ေဆာင္မႈမ်ားႏွင့္ မ်ိုးဆက္ပြားက်န္းမာေရးဆိုင္ရာအခြင့္အေရးေတြကို အားလံုးလက္လွမ္းမီရရွိေရးအတြက္ ေဆာက္ရြက္ရန္ ကမၻာ့ေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ားက ကတိက၀တ္ျပဳခဲ႔ၾကပါတယ္။ မိခင္ေသဆံုးမႈ ေလွ်ာ့ခ်ဖို႔ သႏၷိ႒ာန္ခ်ခဲ့ၾကၿပီး က်ားမအေျချပဳ အၾကမ္းဖက္မႈကို အဆံုးသတ္ဖို႔လည္း ကတိျပဳခဲ့ၾကပါတယ္။ အဲဒီအျပင္ ေခါင္းေဆာင္ေတြက အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ား စြမ္းေဆာင္ရည္ျမႇင့္တင္မႈဟာ စဥ္ဆက္မျပတ္ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈအတြက္ မရွိမျဖစ္လိုအပ္ခ်က္ တစ္ရပ္အျဖစ္လည္း အသိအမွတ္ျပဳခဲ့ၾကၿပီး အစိုးရေတြကို လူငယ္မ်ားအတြက္ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံဖို႔၊ ဆင္းရဲႏြမ္းပါးမႈ အဆံုးသတ္ဖို႔နဲ႕ ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္းလုပ္သားေတြ၊ ေနရပ္စြန္႕ခြာေရႊ႕ေျပာင္းရသူေတြကို ကာကြယ္ေစာင့္ေရွာက္ဖို႔ တိုက္တြန္းခဲ့ပါတယ္။ လူဦးေရဆိုင္ရာ ေျပာင္းလဲမႈေတြနဲ႕ ဆက္စပ္ျဖစ္ေပၚလာတဲ့ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ဆိုင္ရာ ျပႆနာေတြကို ကိုင္တြယ္ေျဖရွင္းဖို႔လည္း ကတိျပဳခဲ့ၾကပါေသးတယ္။

ICPD ကေန ေရွ႕ေဆာင္လမ္းျပခဲ့တဲ့ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈအတြက္ လူသားဗဟုိျပဳနည္းလမ္းဟာ ေနာက္ပိုင္းကာလေတြမွာ ခ်မွတ္ေဆာင္ရြက္ခဲ့ၾကတဲ့ ေထာင္စုႏွစ္ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈပန္းတိုင္မ်ား (MDGs) နဲ႕ စဥ္ဆက္မျပတ္ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးတုိးတက္မႈပန္းတိုင္ မ်ား (SDGs) အပါအဝင္ ႏိုင္ငံတကာဖံြ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးလုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ေတြမွာလည္း ဆက္လက္က်င့္သံုးလာခဲ့ၾကပါတယ္။  ဂုဏ္သေရရွိလူႀကီးမင္းမ်ားခင္ဗ်ာ၊ ICPD လုပ္ငန္းအစီအစဥ္နဲ႕ စဥ္ဆက္မျပတ္ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈပန္းတိုင္ေတြဟာ ဖံြ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈအတြက္ အျပန္အလွန္အားေပးေထာက္ပံ့ေနတဲ့ အစီအစဥ္ႏွစ္ခု ျဖစ္တယ္ဆိုတာ သတိျပဳမိၾကမွာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ လြန္ခဲ့တဲ့ရက္သတၱပတ္အနည္းငယ္ခန္႕က ဒိန္းမတ္အိမ္ေရွ႕စံ ေျပာခဲ့သလို ပါပဲ “ICPD ဟာ လိင္ပိုင္းဆိုင္ရာနဲ႕ မ်ိဳးဆက္ပြားက်န္းမာေရး ရပိုင္ခြင့္လႈပ္ရွားမႈေတြအတြက္ အေျခခံအုတ္ျမစ္ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔အေနနဲ႕ ၂၀၃၀ ျပည့္ႏွစ္မွာ ရည္မွန္းခ်က္ႀကီးႀကီးနဲ႕ ခ်မွတ္ထားတဲ့ စဥ္ဆက္မျပတ္ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳး တိုးတက္မႈပန္းတိုင္ေတြကို ျပည့္မီေအာင္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ႏိုင္ဖို႔ဆိုရင္ လိင္ပိုင္းဆိုင္ရာနဲ႕ မ်ိဳးဆက္ပြား က်န္းမာေရး၊ ရပိုင္ခြင့္ေတြကို ကာကြယ္ေစာင့္ေရွာက္ျခင္း၊ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ား စြမ္းေဆာင္ရည္ျမႇင့္တင္ျခင္းနဲ႕ က်ားမတန္းတူညီမွ်မႈေတြအားလံုးဟာ မရွိမျဖစ္အေရးပါလွပါတယ္။”

ဒီႏွစ္ရဲ႕ ေဆာင္ပုဒ္အရ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ရဲ႕ သက္ဆိုင္ရာ ႏိုင္ငံအသီးသီး မွာ ICPD ပန္းတိုင္ေတြ ျပည့္ေျမာက္ေစဖို႔ အစိုးရနဲ႕တကြ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔တေတြအားလံုး ႀကိဳးပမ္းအားထုတ္မႈေတြကေန ရရွိလာတဲ့ တိုးတက္မႈေတြကို စာရင္းျပဳစုမွတ္ တမ္းတင္ႏိုင္မယ့္ တမူထူးျခားတဲ့ အခြင့္အေရးကို ရရွိေစပါတယ္။ တစ္ခ်ိန္တည္းမွာပဲ ၁၉၉၄ ခုႏွစ္က ကတိျပဳခဲ့ၾကတဲ့ အတိုင္း လူသားအားလံုး ရပိုင္ခြင့္ေတြ ရရွိခံစားႏိုင္ေအာင္၊ ေရြးခ်ယ္မႈေတြ ျပဳလုပ္ႏိုင္ေအာင္၊ ICPD လုပ္ငန္းအစီအစဥ္ကို အေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္တဲ့ေနရာမွာ အျပည့္အဝႏွစ္ျမႇဳပ္အားထုတ္ၿပီး အရွိန္ျမႇင့္တင္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ဖို႔ ကၽြန္ေတာ္အားလံုးကို ဒီေဆာင္ပုဒ္က စိန္ေခၚေနပါတယ္။ ၂၀၃၀ လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္မွာ ခ်မွတ္ထားတဲ့ ဘယ္သူမွ ေနာက္မက်န္ခဲ့ေစရ၊ ေနာက္အက်ဆံုး က်န္ခဲ့သူေတြဆီ အေရာက္ကမ္းလင့္ၾကမယ္ဆိုတဲ့ ျပင္းျပတဲ့ဆႏၵေတြ ျပည့္ေျမာက္ေအာင္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ၾကရမွာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ဧည့္သည္ေတာ္ႀကီးမ်ားခင္ဗ်ာ၊ ကၽြန္ေတာ့္အေနနဲ႕ ဒီအခမ္းအနားကေန တစ္ကမၻာလံုးမွာေရာ၊ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံမွာပါ ICPD အတြက္ စီမံပံ့ပိုးေဆာင္ရြက္ေပးရတဲ့ UNFPA ရဲ႕ အေရးႀကီးတဲ့ အခန္းက႑ကို အသိအမွတ္ျပဳခ်ီးက်ဴးလို ပါတယ္။ တိုက္တိုက္ဆိုင္ဆိုင္ ၁၉၆၉ ခုႏွစ္က စတင္တည္ေထာင္ခဲ့တဲ့ UNFPA အတြက္ ၂၀၁၉ ခုႏွစ္ဟာဆိုရင္ ႏွစ္ ၅၀ ျပည့္ေျမာက္တဲ့ ႏွစ္ပတ္လည္လည္း ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔အေနနဲ႕ UNFPA အတြက္ ေပ်ာ္ရႊင္ဖြယ္ႏွစ္ပတ္လည္ ျဖစ္ပါ ေစေၾကာင္းနဲ႕ ကမၻာတစ္ဝွမ္းနဲ႕ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံက သန္းေပါင္းမ်ားစြာေသာ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ား၊ မိန္းကေလးမ်ားနဲ႕ လူငယ္မ်ား အတြက္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ေပးေနတဲ့ အေရးပါၿပီး တန္ဖိုးၾကီးလွတဲ့ အသက္ကယ္တင္ေရးလုပ္ငန္းေတြကို   ေအာင္ျမင္စြာ ဆက္လက္လုပ္ေဆာင္ႏိုင္ပါေစေၾကာင္း ဆုမြန္ေကာင္းေတာင္းေပးလိုပါတယ္။

ဂုဏ္သေရရွိ လူႀကီးမင္းမ်ားခင္ဗ်ာ၊ ဒီေနရာမွာ ကၽြန္ေတာ့္အေနနဲ႕ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံအစိုးရရဲ႕ ICPD လုပ္ငန္းအစီအစဥ္အေကာင္ အထည္ေဖာ္ႏိုင္ေရးအတြက္ ႏွစ္ျမႇဳပ္ႀကိဳးပမ္းေဆာင္ရြက္မႈေတြကို အသိအမွတ္ျပဳခ်ီးက်ဴးလိုပါတယ္။ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံအစိုးရရဲ႕ ႀကိဳးပမ္းေဆာင္ရြက္မႈအမ်ားစုကို ဒုတိယသမၼတရဲ႕ မိန္႕ခြန္းမွာ ၾကားသိၾကရၿပီးျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ အဲဒီအျပင္ ယခုႏွစ္ ဧၿပီလက နယူးေယာက္ၿမိဳ႕မွာ က်င္းပခဲ့တဲ့ လူဦးေရနဲ႕ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈေကာ္မရွင္ရဲ႕ ၅၂ ႀကိမ္ေျမာက္ အစည္းအေဝးမွာ က်န္းမာေရး နဲ႕ အားကစားဝန္ႀကီးဌာန ျပည္ေထာင္စုဝန္ႀကီး ဦးျမင့္ေထြးေျပၾကားခဲ့တဲ့ စကားတခ်ိဳ႕ကို ကိုးကားတင္ျပလိုပါတယ္။ အဲဒါကေတာ့ –

“ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံအေနနဲ႕ ICPD လုပ္ငန္းအစီအစဥ္ အေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္ေရးအတြက္ အစီအစဥ္ကို စတင္ခ်မွတ္ခဲ့တဲ့ ၁၉၉၄ ခုႏွစ္ကစလို႔ ခိုင္ခိုင္မာမာ၊ ျပည့္ျပည့္ဝဝ ကတိ ကဝတ္ျပဳခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔အေနနဲ႕ ဒီလုပ္ငန္းအစီအစဥ္အေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္ေရးကို အလြန္ပဲ အေလးအနက္ထားပါတယ္။” လို႔ ေျပာခဲ့တာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံရဲ႕ ေရရွည္တည္တံ့ခိုင္ၿမဲၿပီး ဟန္ခ်က္ညီတဲ့ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈစီမံကိန္း (MSDP၊ ၂၀၁၈-၂၀၃၀) မွာ လိင္ပိုင္းဆိုင္ ရာနဲ႕ မ်ိဳးဆက္ပြားက်န္းမာေရးရပိုင္ခြင့္ဆိုင္ရာ ကိစၥေတြကို ကိုင္တြယ္ေျဖရွင္းဖို႔၊ မိခင္ေသဆံုးမႈေတြ ေလွ်ာ့ခ်ဖို႔၊ မိသားစုစီမံကိန္းအစီအစဥ္ေတြ အားေကာင္းေစဖို႔၊ က်ားမတန္းတူညီမွ်မႈရရွိဖို႔နဲ႕ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ား စြမ္းေဆာင္ရည္ ျမႇင့္တင္ေပးဖို႔၊ စီးပြားေရး၊ ႏိုင္ငံေရးနဲ႕ ရပ္ေရးရြာေရးေတြမွာ လူငယ္ေတြရဲ႕ ပါဝင္ေဆာင္ရြက္မႈကို အားေပးျမႇင့္တင္ဖို႔ ရည္ရြယ္ၿပီး   ထည့္သြင္းေရးဆြဲထားတဲ့ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာေတြနဲ႕ လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ေတြကိုလည္း သိရွိမွတ္သားရပါတယ္။

၁၉၉၀ ျပည့္ႏွစ္နဲ႕ ၂၀၁၄ ခုႏွစ္ၾကား ကာလအတြင္းမွာ မိခင္ေသဆံုးမႈႏႈန္းကို အရွင္ေမြး ၁၀၀,၀၀၀ မွာ ၄၅၀ ေက်ာ္ရွိရာက ၂၈၂ ေလာက္အထိ ေလွ်ာ့ခ်ႏိုင္ခဲ့သလိုမ်ိဳး အဓိကညႊန္ကိန္းတစ္ခ်ိဳ႕မွာ ေအာင္ျမင္တိုးတက္မႈေတြ ရွိခဲ့တာကိုလည္း ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ သတိျပဳမိၾကပါတယ္။ ဒါေပမဲ့ တစ္ခ်ိဳ႕ ျပည္နယ္နဲ႕ တိုင္းေဒသႀကီးေတြမွာ မိခင္ေသဆံုးႏႈန္းေတြဟာ စိတ္ပူ စရာ ေကာင္းေလာက္ေအာင္ ျမင့္မားေနေသးတယ္ဆိုတာကိုလည္း သတိျပဳၾကဖို႔ အေရးႀကီးပါတယ္။ ဥပမာ ခ်င္းျပည္နယ္ မွာ မိခင္ေသႏႈန္း ၃၅၇၊ ဧရာဝတီတိုင္းေဒသႀကီးမွာ ၃၅၄၊ မေကြးတိုင္းေဒသႀကီးမွာ ၃၄၄၊ ပဲခူးတိုင္းေဒသႀကီးမွာ ၃၁၆၊ ရခိုင္ ျပည္နယ္မွာ ၃၁၄ တို႔ပဲ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ေက်းလက္နဲ႕ ၿမိဳ႕ျပၾကား မိခင္ေသဆံုးႏႈန္း ကြာဟမႈဟာလည္း အတန္ငယ္ျမင့္မားေန ပါတယ္။ ၿမိဳ႕ျပမွာ မိခင္ေသဆံုးႏႈန္းဟာ အရွင္ေမြး ၁၀၀,၀၀၀ မွာ ၁၉၃ နဲ႕  ေက်းလက္မွာ ၃၁၀ ရွိပါတယ္။ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ အေနနဲ႕ ၂၀၃၀ ျပည့္ႏွစ္မွာ မိခင္ေသဆံုးႏႈန္း အရွင္ေမြး ၁၀၀,၀၀၀ မွာ ၇၀ ေအာက္ေလ်ာ့နည္းေရးဆိုတဲ့ ကမၻာလံုးဆိုင္ရာ SDG ရည္မွန္းခ်က္ ျပည့္မီေရးအတြက္ စုေပါင္းႀကိဳးပမ္းအားထုတ္ၾကဖို႔ အားေပးတိုက္တြန္းလိုပါတယ္။

အဲဒီအျပင္ မိသားစုစီမံကိန္း ၂၀၂၀ လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္အတြက္ ျပဳထားတဲ့ ကတိကဝတ္ေတြကို အေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္ႏိုင္ေရး အတြက္ UNFPA နဲ႕ တျခားမိတ္ဖက္ေတြရဲ႕ ကူညီပံ့ပိုးမႈနဲ႕ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံအစိုးရရဲ႕ အားထုတ္ႀကိဳးပမ္းမႈေတြကိုလည္း အသိ အမွတ္ျပဳလိုပါတယ္။ အဲဒီလုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ဟာ အဓိကအားျဖင့္ သားဆက္ျခားေဆးဝါးပစၥည္းသံုးစြဲမႈႏႈန္း(CPR) ကို ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္ မွာ ၄၁% ရွိရာကေန ၂၀၂၀ ျပည့္ႏွစ္မွာ ၆၀% အထိ တိုးျမင့္လာဖို႔၊ လိုအပ္ေနတဲ႔ မိသားစုစီမံကိန္းကို ျဖည့္ဆည္းေပးရာမွာ ကြာဟခ်က္ကို ၂၀၂၀ ျပည့္ႏွစ္မွာ ၁၀% ေအာက္အထိ ေရာက္ေအာင္ ေလွ်ာ့ခ်ဖို႔ ရည္ရြယ္တာျဖစ္ပါတယ္။  ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ အစိုးရ၊ ကုလသမဂၢ၊ NGO ေတြနဲ႕ တျခားလုပ္ေဆာင္သူေတြရဲ႕ ပူးေပါင္းႀကိဳးပမ္းေဆာင္ရြက္မႈေတြေၾကာင့္ လက္ရွိအခ်ိန္မွာ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံက အိမ္ေထာင္သည္အမ်ိဳးသမီးေတြရဲ႕ ထက္ဝက္ဟာ မိသားစုစီမံကိန္းကို အသံုးျပဳေနႏိုင္ၿပီျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ သုိ႔ေသာ္ျငားလည္း အမ်ိဳးသမီးေျခာက္ဦးမွာ တစ္ဦးကေတာ့ သားဆက္ျခားေဆးဝါးပစၥည္းေတြ လိုအပ္ေနေပမဲ့ ျဖည့္ဆည္း ေပးႏိုင္ျခင္း မရွိေသးပါဘူး။ အမ်ိဳးသမီးေပါင္း ႏွစ္သန္းေက်ာ္နဲ႕ သူတို႔ရဲ႕ အေဖာ္ေတြဟာ မိသားစုစီမံကိန္းကို ခ်မွတ္ခြင့္ ဆိုတဲ့ သူတို႔ရဲ႕ လူ႕အခြင့္အေရးကို က်င့္သံုးလိုေပမဲ့ မက်င့္သံုးႏိုင္ေသးဘူးလို႔ ဆိုလိုတာျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ အဲဒီလို မက်င့္သံုးႏိုင္ တဲ့အတြက္ မရည္ရြယ္ဘဲ ကိုယ္ဝန္ရရွိသြားတာေတြ၊ အႏၱရာယ္ရွိတဲ့ သားပ်က္သားေလွ်ာမႈေတြ၊ မိခင္နဲ႕ ကေလး ေသဆံုးမႈ ေတြကို ျဖစ္ေပၚေစၿပီး အမ်ိဳးသမီးေတြကိုလည္း ပညာေရး၊ အလုပ္အကိုင္နဲ႕ အသက္ေမြးမႈအလုပ္ေတြမွာ ေရြးခ်ယ္ခြင့္ေတြ ကို အကန္႕အသတ္ျဖစ္ေစပါတယ္။ ဒုတိယသမၼတနဲ႕တကြ ျပည္ေထာင္စုဝန္ႀကီးမ်ား၊ ဂုဏ္သေရရွိလူႀကီးမင္းမ်ားခင္ဗ်ာ ဒါဟာ ICPD နဲ႕ SDG ပန္းတိုင္ေတြအတြက္ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ ျပဳထားတဲ့ ကတိကဝတ္ေတြရဲ႔ အစိတ္အပိုင္းတစ္ခုအျဖစ္ ဆက္လက္အေကာင္အထည္ ေဖာ္ရမယ္႔ မၿပီးဆံုးေသးတဲ့ လုပ္ငန္းတစ္ခုပဲ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

လိင္ပိုင္းဆိုင္ရာ၊ မ်ိဳးဆက္ပြား က်န္းမာေရးနဲ႕ ရပိုင္ခြင့္မ်ားအတြက္ အမ်ိဳးသားမူဝါဒတစ္ရပ္ကို ေရးဆြဲထားၿပီးျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ႏိုင္ငံတြင္းမွာရွိတဲ့ မ်ိဳးဆက္ပြားက်န္းမာေရးအစီအစဥ္ေတြ အေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္မႈကို ထပ္မံ အရွိန္အဟုန္ျမႇင့္တင္ႏိုင္ဖို႔ အတြက္ ဒီမူဝါဒကို မၾကာမီမွာ အတည္ျပဳလိမ့္မယ္လို႔လည္း ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ ယံုၾကည္ပါတယ္။

က်ားမတန္းတူညီမွ်မႈနဲ႕ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ား စြမ္းေဆာင္ရည္ျမႇင့္တင္မႈအပိုင္းမွာလည္း ျမန္မာ့လူမႈအဖြဲ႕အစည္းအတြင္း အမ်ိဳး သမီးမ်ားရဲ႕ ရပ္တည္မႈအဆင့္အတန္းကို ျမႇင့္တင္ေပးဖို႔ ရည္ရြယ္တဲ့ မူဝါဒေတြ၊ လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ေတြ ခ်မွတ္က်င့္သံုးၿပီး အားေပးပံ႔ပိုးတဲ့ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္တစ္ခု ဖန္တီးေပးႏိုင္ဖို႔ အစိုးရရဲ႕ ေခါင္းေဆာင္မႈနဲ႕ အားထုတ္မႈေတြကို ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ အသိအမွတ္ျပဳပါတယ္။ အထူးသျဖင့္ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားရဲ႕ အခြင့္အေရးေတြကို အားေပးျမႇင့္တင္ကာကြယ္ေပးၿပီး အမ်ိဳးသမီး ေတြကို အရင္းအျမစ္ေတြ၊ အခြင့္အလမ္းေတြ၊ ဝန္ေဆာင္မႈေတြနဲ႕ ဆံုးျဖတ္ခ်က္ခ်မွတ္တဲ့ ရာထူးေနရာေတြမွာ ကိုယ္စားျပဳ ပါဝင္မႈေတြကို အမ်ိဳးသားေတြနဲ႕ တန္းတူညီမွ် လက္လွမ္းမီ ရရွိေစဖို႔ ရည္ရြယ္တဲ့ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ား ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးဆိုင္ရာ အမ်ိဳးသားအဆင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာစီမံကိန္း (NSPAW) (၂၀၁၃-၂၀၂၂) ကို ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္က ေရးဆြဲထုတ္ျပန္ခဲ့တာကိုလည္း ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ သတိျပဳမိပါတယ္။ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားအေပၚ အၾကမ္းဖက္မႈ တားဆီးကာကြယ္ေရး (PoVAW) ဥပေဒၾကမ္းကို ေရးဆြဲခဲ့ၾကတာကိုလည္း ေတြ႕ျမင္ၾကရၿပီး ဒီဥပေဒၾကမ္းကို အျမန္ဆံုးအတည္ျပဳႏိုင္ၿပီး အေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္ႏိုင္မယ့္ အခ်ိန္ကို ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ေစာင့္စားေနပါတယ္။

UNFPA နဲ႕ တျခားမိတ္ဖက္ေတြရဲ႕ ပံ့ပိုးကူညီမႈနဲ႕ အမ်ိဳးသားလူငယ္မူဝါဒနဲ႕ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာစီမံကိန္းကို ပထမဆံုးအႀကိမ္ ေရးဆြဲထုတ္ျပန္ႏိုင္ခဲ့တဲ့အတြက္ အစိုးရကို ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ ခ်ီးက်ဴးဂုဏ္ျပဳလိုပါတယ္။ ျမန္မာလူငယ္ေတြရဲ႕ ဆႏၵေတြကို ျဖည့္ ဆည္းေပးႏိုင္ဖို႔အတြက္ ဒီမူဝါဒနဲ႕ စီမံကိန္းေတြကို အျပည့္အဝအေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္ႏိုင္လိမ့္မယ္လို႔လည္း ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ ယံုၾကည္ပါတယ္။ ဆႏၵေတြအမ်ားအျပားထဲမွာ အထူးအားျဖင့္ လူငယ္ေတြရဲ႕ ပညာေရး၊ မ်ိဳးဆက္ပြားက်န္းမာေရး အပါ အဝင္ က်န္းမာေရး၊ သင့္တင့္တဲ့ အလုပ္အကိုင္၊ အသက္ေမြးဝမ္းေက်ာင္းမႈ အခြင့္အလမ္းေတြကို လက္လွမ္းမီမႈ၊ ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္း ေရးလုပ္ငန္းစဥ္အပါအဝင္ အဓိကက်တဲ့ ႏိုင္ငံအဆင့္ လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ေတြမွာ အားလံုးပါဝင္ေဆာင္ရြက္ႏိုင္မႈတို႔ကို ျဖည့္ဆည္း ေပးဖို႔ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ဧည့္သည္ေတာ္ႀကီးမ်ားခင္ဗ်ာ၊ ေရွ႕ကို ေမွ်ာ္ၾကည့္မယ္ဆိုရင္ ICPD ပန္းတိုင္ေတြအျပင္ SDG ပန္းတိုင္ေတြနဲ႕ ၂၀၃၀ လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ရဲ႕ ပန္းတိုင္ေတြ ျပည့္မီေစေရး အရွိန္အဟုန္နဲ႕ ေဆာင္ရြက္ေနမႈေတြကို ဆက္လက္ထိန္းသိမ္းေဆာင္ရြက္ႏိုင္ဖို႔ နဲ႕ ဒီထက္အရွိန္တိုးျမႇင့္ႏိုင္ဖို႔အတြက္  ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔အေနနဲ႕ လီဘာကို မလြတ္တမ္း ဆက္နင္းထားဖို႔ လိုပါတယ္။ ေနရာ ေဒသမေရြး၊ တျခားလူမႈစီးပြားဆိုင္ရာ လကၡဏာေတြ ဘယ္လိုပဲ ကဲြျပားပါေစ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံမွာရွိတဲ့ အမ်ိဳးသမီးတိုင္း၊ မိန္းက ေလးတိုင္းနဲ႕ လူငယ္တိုင္းဟာ ျပည့္စံုတဲ့ လိင္ပိုင္းဆိုင္ရာနဲ႕ မ်ိဳးဆက္ပြားက်န္းမာေရး ဝန္ေဆာင္မႈေတြကို လက္လွမ္းမီ ရရွိႏိုင္ဖို႔၊ က်ားမအေျချပဳအၾကမ္းဖက္မႈနဲ႕ ဘယ္လိုအၾကမ္းဖက္မႈပံုစံမ်ိဳးမဆိုကေန ကင္းေဝးေစဖို႔အတြက္ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ရဲ႕ ကတိကဝတ္ေတြ ထပ္မံျပဳၾကဖို႔ လိုမွာျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ဧည့္သည္ေတာ္ႀကီးမ်ားခင္ဗ်ာ၊ ဘယ္သူမွ ေနာက္မက်န္ခဲ့ရေလေအာင္ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔အေနနဲ႕ ႏိုင္ငံရဲ႕ ေရာက္ရွိဖို႔ ခက္ခဲတဲ့၊ ပဋိပကၡျဖစ္ေနတဲ့၊ ဒါမွမဟုတ္ သဘာဝေဘးဒဏ္သင့္တဲ့ ေဒသေတြမွာ ေနထိုင္တဲ့ အမ်ိဳးသမီးေတြ၊ မိန္းကေလးေတြနဲ႕ လူငယ္ေတြထံကို လက္လွမ္းမီႏိုင္ဖို႔ လိုအပ္မွာ ျဖစ္ၿပီး သူတို႔ကို ဂုဏ္သိကၡာ ရွိစြာ ေနထုိင္ႏိုင္ဖို႔အတြက္ လိုအပ္တဲ့ ဝန္ေဆာင္မႈေတြကို ေဆာင္ရြက္ေပးရမွာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ အဲဒီလို အေရးႀကီးတဲ့ ေနရာေတြမွာ၊ ဥပမာ ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္ (ေတာင္ႀကီးနဲ႕ လားရိႈး)၊ ကခ်င္ျပည္နယ္၊ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ (စစ္ေတြနဲ႕ ေမာင္းေတာ)၊ ကရင္ျပည္နယ္ေတြမွာ UNFPA ဟာ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာက်က် ကိုယ္တိုင္ကိုယ္က် ေရာက္ရွိေနတာျဖစ္တဲ့အတြက္ UNFPA အေနနဲ႕ အကူအညီအလုိအပ္ဆံုးေသာသူေတြ၊ ေနာက္က်န္ခဲ့ႏိုင္တဲ့သူေတြဆီ ကမ္းလင့္ေရာက္ရွိႏိုင္ေအာင္ မျဖစ္မေန ႀကိဳးပမ္းသြားရမွာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ဧည့္သည္ေတာ္ႀကီးမ်ားခင္ဗ်ာ၊ က်ိဳးေၾကာင္းဆက္စပ္မႈက ရိုးစင္းပါတယ္။ အမ်ိဳးသမီးေတြနဲ႕ မိန္းကေလးေတြဟာ သူတို႔ရဲ႕ ခႏၶာကိုယ္နဲ႕ ပတ္သက္လို႔ ဆံုးျဖတ္ခ်က္ေတြ ကိုယ္တိုင္ခ်မွတ္ပိုင္ခြင့္၊ အၾကမ္းဖက္မႈကေန ကင္းေဝးစြာ ေနထိုင္ခြင့္ ရၾကမယ္ဆိုရင္ စီးပြားေရး ဖံြ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ဖို႔ အတြက္ ပိုၿပီး အေထာက္အကူျပဳႏိုင္ၾကမွာျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ စံုတဲြေတြဟာ မိသားစု စီမံကိန္းဆိုင္ရာ သတင္းအခ်က္အလက္ေတြနဲ႕ ဝန္ေဆာင္မႈေတြ၊ ေကာင္းမြန္တဲ့ မ်ိဳးဆက္ပြားက်န္းမာေရး ေစာင့္ေရွာက္မႈေတြကိုသာ လက္လွမ္းမီရၾကမယ္ဆိုရင္ ကေလးဘယ္ႏွေယာက္ယူမယ္၊ ဘယ္ေတာ့ယူမယ္ဆိုတဲ့ တာဝန္သိတဲ့ ဆံုးျဖတ္ခ်က္ ေတြကို ပိုၿပီးခ်မွတ္ႏိုင္ၾကမွာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ အားလံုးထဲမွာ အေရးအႀကီးဆံုးကေတာ့ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံရဲ႕ လက္ရွိလူငယ္မ်ိဳးဆက္ သစ္ေတြဟာ က်န္းမာမယ္၊ ပညာေကာင္းစြာ တတ္ေျမာက္မယ္၊ သင့္တင့္ေလ်ာက္ပတ္တဲ့ အလုပ္အကိုင္ေတြကို ရွာေဖြႏိုင္ ၾကမယ္ဆိုရင္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံဟာ လွ်င္ျမန္စြာ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္လာမွာ အမွန္ပဲ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ အဲဒီအခါမွာ လူတိုင္းရဲ႕ ဘဝ ပိုမို သာယာဝေျပာလာၿပီး ဆင္းရဲမႈေတြ ေလ်ာ့က်လို႔ ေရရွည္တည္တံ့တဲ့ ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး ရရွိႏိုင္မယ့္ အခြင့္အလမ္းေတြလည္း တိုးပြားလာမွာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ဧည့္သည္ေတာ္ႀကီးမ်ားခင္ဗ်ာ၊ ေနာက္ဆံုးအေနနဲ႕ ICPD ရဲ႕ ၂၅ ႏွစ္ ျပည့္ေျမာက္တဲ့အထိမ္းအမွတ္အေနနဲ႕ ဒီႏွစ္ ႏိုဝင္ဘာ လမွာ ႏိုင္ရိုဘီမွာ ညီလာခံတစ္ရပ္ က်င္းပမွာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ဒီညီလာခံကို အဆင့္ျမင့္ကိုယ္စားလွယ္အဖြဲ႕ ေစလႊတ္ဖို႔အတြက္ UNFPA က ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံအစိုးရနဲ႕ ေဆြးေႏြးေနတယ္လို႔ ကၽြန္ေတာ္ သိရွိထားပါတယ္။ ႏိုင္ရိုဘီမွာ က်င္းပမယ့္ ဒီညီလာခံမွာ ႏိုင္ငံအစိုးရေတြ၊ ပုဂၢလိကက႑၊ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးမႈမိတ္ဖက္ေတြနဲ႕ တျခားအက်ိဳးသက္ဆိုင္သူေတြဟာ ICPD လုပ္ငန္းအစီအစဥ္ကို အျပည့္အဝအေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္ေရးနဲ႕ ၂၀၃၀ ျပည့္ႏွစ္မွာ SDG ပန္းတိုင္မ်ား ျပည့္မီေရးအတြက္ သူတို႔ရဲ႕ ႏိုင္ငံေရး အာသီသနဲ႕ ေငြေၾကးဆိုင္ရာ ကတိကဝတ္ေတြ ထပ္ေလာင္းျပဳၾကၿပီး တစ္ဖန္ အားသစ္ေလာင္းၾကမွာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ အင္မတန္မွ အေရးႀကီးတဲ့ အဲဒီညီလာခံႀကီးမွာ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံအေနနဲ႕ အျပည္႔အ၀ ကိုယ္စားျပဳတက္ေရာက္လိမ့္မယ္လို႔ ကၽြန္ေတာ္ ယံုၾကည္ပါတယ္။

ဒုတိယသမၼတနဲ႕တကြ ျပည္ေထာင္စုဝန္ႀကီးမ်ား၊ ဂုဏ္သေရရွိလူႀကီးမင္းမ်ားခင္ဗ်ာ၊ နိဂံုးခ်ဳပ္အေနနဲ႕ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံမွာ ရွိတဲ့ ကုလသမဂၢ ဌာေနညိႇႏိႈင္းေရးမွဴးနဲ႕ လူသားခ်င္းစာနာေထာက္ထားမႈဆိုင္ရာ ညိႇႏိႈင္းေရးမွဴးအေနနဲ႕ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံရဲ႕ ၂၀၃၀ ျပည့္ႏွစ္မွာ စဥ္ဆက္မျပတ္ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈပန္းတိုင္မ်ား ရရွိေရးအတြက္ ထက္သန္ျပင္းျပတဲ့ ဆႏၵေတြနဲ႕အတူ ICPD ကို အျပည့္အဝအေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္ေရး ကတိကဝတ္မ်ားနဲ႕ ႀကိဳးပမ္းအားထုတ္မႈေတြအတြက္ UN မွ ယိမ္းယိုင္ ေသြဖည္ျခင္းအလ်ဥ္းမရွိ ဆက္လက္ပံ့ပိုးကူညီသြားဦးမယ္ဆိုတဲ့အေၾကာင္း ထပ္ေလာင္းအတည္ျပဳေျပာၾကားလိုပါတယ္။

အာရံုစိုက္နားေထာင္ေပးၾကတဲ့အတြက္ ဧည့္သည္ေတာ္ႀကီးမ်ားအားလံုးကို အထူးပင္ ေက်းဇူးတင္ရွိပါတယ္ခင္ဗ်ာ။



Theme: 25 Years of the ICPD: Accelerating the Promise

 ·        Vice President of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, Your Excellency U Myint Swe

·        Union Minister for the Ministry of Labour, Immigration and Population, Your Excellency U             Thein Swe

·        Excellencies Honourable Union Ministers

·        Senior Government officials present

·        The UNFPA Representative, Mr. Ramanathan Balakrishnan

·        Colleagues from the UN

·        Development Partners

·        Distinguished Ladies and Gentlemen

Good morning and Mingalabar!

It is with great pleasure and honour that I join you today to commemorate the occasion of the World Population Day for 2019, under a very important theme: 25 Years of the ICPD: Accelerating the Promise.

25 years ago, in September of 1994, Myanmar joined a global revolution that started in Cairo, Egypt, when 179 world leaders convened at the International Conference on Population and Development, the ICPD, and recognised that individuals have a human right to make free and responsible reproductive choices. At that conference, the global leaders endorsed a global programme of action that linked women’s empowerment, rights and sexual and reproductive health to sustainable development.

Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, the watershed ICPD consensus was a transformative victory for governments and reproductive health movements. For the first time in history, the ICPD shifted the focus from demographic targets to human lives. World leaders promised universal access to family planning and reproductive health services and reproductive rights. They vowed to reduce maternal deaths and they pledged end gender-based violence. The leaders also recognized women empowerment as a prerequisite for sustainable development and called upon governments to invest in young people, end poverty, and protect migrants and displaced people. They further pledged to address environmental issues associated with population changes.  

That human-centric approach to development, as pioneered by the ICPD, has lived on in subsequent international development agendas including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Sustainable Development Goal (SDGs). You will appreciate, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, that the ICPD Programme of Action and the Sustainable Development Goals are two mutually reinforcing development blueprints. In the words of Crown Princess of Denmark a few weeks ago:  “the ICPD is the cornerstone of the sexual and reproductive rights movement, and protecting sexual and reproductive health and rights, women’s empowerment and gender equality are all essential if we are to have any chance of achieving the ambitious Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.”

The theme for this year presents government and all of us with a unique opportunity to take stock of the gains that have been made in realising the goals of the ICPD in our respective constituencies. At the same time, the theme challenges us all to fully commit and further accelerate the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action, as promised in 1994, in pursuit of realising the rights and choices for all and in our quest to meet the aspirations set out in the 2030 Agenda, of leaving no one behind and reaching the farthest behind.

Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, let me at this juncture recognise the important role of UNFPA as the custodian of the ICPD both at the global level and at country level in Myanmar. Incidentally, 2019 also marks the 50th anniversary of the establishment of UNFPA in 1969. We say Happy 50thBirthday to UNFPA and we wish the organisation every success in the important and valuable life-saving work it renders to millions of women, girls and young people around the world, and in Myanmar.

Allow me at this point, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, take recognition of the commitment of the Myanmar Government to the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action, most of which have been well articulated by the Vice President. And let also quote from a statement made by the Union Minister of Health and Sports, U Myint Htwe, during the 52nd Session of the Commission on Population and Development in New York, in April this year:

“Myanmar has accorded strong and unreserved commitment on implementation of the Programme of Action of ICPD since its inception in 1994. We are also very serious about it.”

We take note of the strategies and actions reflected in the Myanmar Sustainable Development Plan (MSDP, 2018 – 2030), aimed at addressing issues of sexual and reproductive health and rights; reducing maternal deaths; strengthening family planning programmes; ensuring gender equality and empowerment of women; and promoting the participation of young people in the economic, political and community spheres.

We note the progress made in some of the key indicators such as the reduction of the maternal mortality ratio from over 450 to around 282 deaths per 100,000 live births during the period between 1990 and 2014. However, it is worth noting the maternal deaths are worryingly high in some states and regions such as Chin (357), Ayeyawady (354), Magway (344), Bago (316) and Rakhine (314). The gap between rural and urban maternal deaths is pretty wide, at 193 and 310 maternal death per 100,000 live births, respectively. We encourage concerted efforts to ensure that Myanmar is able to attain the global SDG target of less than 70 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births by 2030.

We also take recognition of the efforts made by the Myanmar Government, with support from UNFPA and other partners, in ensuring the implementation of its commitment to the Family Planning 2020 agenda, particularly aiming at increasing contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) from 41% in 2013 to 60% in 2020; and reducing the unmet need for family planning to less than 10% by 2020. Thanks to a concerted effort in Myanmar by the Government, the United Nations, NGOs and other actors, half of married women in Myanmar are currently able to practice family planning. Still, one in six women have an unmet need for contraception. This means that although they would like to, over two million women and their partners cannot exercise their human right to plan their families. This leads to unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions, and maternal and infant death, and it limits women in their education, work and career choices. This, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, is part of the unfinished business that we need to address as part of our commitment to the ICPD and the SDGs.

A national sexual and reproductive health and rights policy has been developed and we trust that it will be approved soon, in order to further accelerate the implementation of reproductive health programmes in the country.

In terms of gender equality and women’s empowerment, we acknowledge government’s leadership and efforts in creating an enabling environment by putting in place policies and mechanisms aimed at elevating the status of women in the Myanmar society. In particular, we note the development of the National Strategic Plan for the Advancement of Women (NSPAW) (2013-2022), which was launched in 2013, whose aim is to promote and protect the rights of women, ensuring their equal access to resources, opportunities, services and representation in the decision making positions. We are also cognizant of the drafting of the Protection and Prevention of Violence against Women (PoVAW) Bill, and we look forward to its expeditious approval and operationalization.

We commend the Government for developing and launching the first ever National Youth Policy and its strategic plan, with support from UNFPA and other partners. We trust that these will be fully operationalised in order to meet the aspirations of young people in Myanmar, particularly in regard to their education, health, including reproductive health, decent employment, access to livelihood opportunities, inclusive participation in key national processes, including the peace process, among others.  

Looking ahead, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, we need to keep our foot on the gas pedal in order to sustain and accelerate the momentum for attaining the goals of the ICPD and, by extension, the SDGs and the 2030 Agenda. We need to renew our commitment to ensuring that every woman, girl and young person in Myanmar, regardless of geographical location or other socio-economic characteristics, is able to access comprehensive sexual reproductive health services; and that they are free from gender based violence and any other forms of violence. If we are to leave no one behind, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, we need to be able to access those women, girls and young people living in difficult to reach, conflict or disaster hit areas of the country, and offer them services that would enable them to live a life of dignity. With UNFPAs strategic physical presence in some of the critical locations such Shan (Taunggyi and Lashio), Kachin, Rakhine (Sittwe and Maungtaw) and Kayin States, it is imperative that the organisation is enabled to reach the most in need and those likely to be left behind.

The logic is simple, Your Excellecies, Ladies and Gentlemen, if women and girls are empowered to make decisions about their bodies and to live free from violence, they are more likely to contribute to the economy. If couples have access to family planning information and services and good reproductive healthcare, they are more likely to make responsible decisions about how many children to have and when. If, on top of all that, this young generation in Myanmar is healthy, well-educated and able to find decent employment, then Myanmar will achieve quick development. This then implies a better life for everyone, as well as less poverty and increased chances for lasting peace.

 Finally, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, the commemoration of 25 years of ICPD will climax in a conference in Nairobi in November this year. I understand UNFPA is in discussions with the government of Myanmar to send a high-level delegation to the conference. At the conference in Nairobi, national governments, private sector, development partners and other stakeholders will be expected to renew and re-energise their political will and financial commitment towards the full implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action and meet the SDGs by 2030. I trust that Myanmar will be well represented at this very important event.

As a way of concluding, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, allow me, as Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator of the United Nations system in Myanmar,  to reiterate the UN’s unwavered support to Myanmar’s commitment and  efforts toward the full implementation of the ICPD along with its aspirations for attaining the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

 Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, I thank you for your attention.





U N I T E D   N A T I O N S                                    N A T I O N S   U N I E S

ကုလသမဂၢအေထြေထြအတြင္းေရးမွဴးခ်ဳပ္၏ ကမၻာ့လူဦးေရေန႕တြင္  ေပးပုိ ့သည့္ သတင္းစကား

၂၀၁၉ ခုႏွစ္၊ ဇူလိုင္လ ၁၁ ရက္

၂၀၃၀ ခုႏွစ္ ေရရွည္စဥ္ဆက္မျပတ္ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရး အစီအစဥ္သည္ လူတိုင္းအတြက္ အနာဂတ္ေတြလွပဖို႔ႏွင့္ က်န္းမာစိုေျပေသာေနရာျဖစ္လာေစဖို႔ တည္ေဆာက္ရာမွာ လိုအပ္တဲ့ ကမၻာၾကီး၏ အေျခခံဖြဲ႕စည္းမႈ ပံုစံတစ္ခုပါ။ ယခုက်ေရာက္တဲ့ ကမၻာ့လူဦးေရေန႔မွာ အခုလိုေဆာင္ရြက္ရမယ့္လုပ္ငန္းတာ၀န္ေတြဟာ လူဦးေရတိုးတက္ လာမႈ၊ သက္ၾကီးရြယ္အို တိုးပြားလာမႈ၊ ေနရပ္ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္းေနထုိင္မႈႏွင့္ ျမိဳ႕ျပမ်ား ေပၚေပါက္လာမႈတို႔ပါ၀င္တဲ့ လူဦးေရ ဆိုင္ရာေျပာင္းလဲမႈအေျခအေနေတြနဲ႔ လြန္စြာဆက္ႏြယ္ပတ္သက္ ေနပါတယ္။

ကမၻာ့လူဦးေရ တိုးပြားလာတာနဲ႔အမၽွ ယင္းႏွင့္ဆက္စပ္ေနတဲ့ တိုးတက္မႈေတြကလဲ မညီမမွ် ေျပာင္းလဲ လာပါတယ္။ ကမၻာ့ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးမႈအနည္းဆံုးႏိုင္ငံမ်ားမွာ လူဦးေရအလ်င္အျမန္တိုးပြားလာမႈႏွင့္ ရာသီဥတုေျပာင္းလဲမႈေၾကာင့္ ထိခုိက္ ႏိုင္ေျခမ်ားလာမႈတို႔ေၾကာင့္ စဥ္ဆက္မျပတ္ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈေဆာင္ရြက္မႈ ေတြမွာ ၾကံဳေတြ႔ ေနရတဲ့  စိန္ေခၚမႈေတြကို ပိုမိုဆိုးရြားလာေစပါတယ္။ အခ်ိဳ႕ႏိုင္ငံေတြမွာ  က်န္းမာသြက္လက္တဲ့ သက္ၾကီး ရြယ္အိုေတြပိုမို ေပၚေပါက္လာေစေရး ႏွင့္ သူတို႔ေတြကို လူမႈအကာအကြယ္ေတြ လံုလံုေလာက္ေလာက္ ရရိွလာေစေရးစတဲ့ ေဆာင္ရြက္ရန္လုိအပ္ခ်က္ေတြ အပါအ၀င္ အျခားသက္ၾကီးရြယ္အို လူဦးေရဆိုင္ရာ စိန္ေခၚမႈေတြကုိ ရင္ဆိုင္ၾကံဳေတြ႕ေနရပါတယ္။ ၂၀၅၀ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ကမၻာ့လူဦးေရ၏ ၆၈ရာခိုင္ႏႈန္းက ျမိဳျပေန လူဦးေရျဖစ္လာမွာႏွင့္ အတူ စဥ္ဆက္မျပတ္ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးႏွင့္ ရာသီဥတုေျပာင္းလဲမႈတို႔ဟာ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ အားလံုး  ျမိဳ႕ျပဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈအေပၚ ဘယ္ေလာက္ေကာင္းမြန္ ေအာင္ျမင္စြာ စီမံေဆာင္ရြက္ႏိုင္မလဲဆိုတဲ့ အေပၚ မ်ားစြာမူတည္ေနပါတယ္။

လူဦးေရတိုးတက္ေျပာင္းလဲလာမႈကို စီမံအုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေဆာင္ရြက္ရာမွာ လည္းကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔အားလံုး လူဦးေရ ၊ ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈႏွင့္ လူတစ္ဦးခ်င္းစီ၏ ေကာင္းက်ိဳးတို႔အၾကား ဆက္ႏြယ္ေနမႈကို အသိအမွတ္ျပဳ သိရိွရမွာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ လြန္ခဲ့တဲ့ ႏွစ္ဆယ့္ငါးႏွစ္က ကိုင္ရိုအျပည္ျပည္ဆိုင္ရာလူဦးေရႏွင့္ ဖြ႔ံျဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈ  ညီလာခံမွာ ကမၻာ့ေခါင္းေဆာင္ေတြက လူဦးေရ၊ ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈႏွင့္ မ်ိဳးဆက္ပြားမႈဆိုင္ရာ အခြင့္အေရးအပါအ၀င္ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးေတြရဲ႕ ဆက္စပ္အေရးပါမႈ  ေတြကို ေဖာ္ထုတ္ေျပာဆိုခဲ့ၾကပါတယ္။  က်ား/မတန္းတူညီမၽွေရးကို ျမွင့္တင္ေဆာင္ရြက္ျခင္းဟာ မွန္ကန္တဲ့လုပ္ရပ္ျဖစ္သလို စဥ္ဆက္မျပတ္ဖြံ ႕ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးႏွင့္ လူတိုင္းရဲ႕ေကာင္းက်ိဳးကို တိုးတက္ေစေရးတို႔ကို ေဖာ္ေဆာင္ရာမွာ ယံုၾကည္စိတ္အခ် ရဆံုးလမ္းေၾကာင္းေတြထဲက တစ္ခုအပါအ၀င္ျဖစ္ပါတယ္လို႔ အသိအမွတ္ျပဳ သေဘာတူညီခဲ့ၾကပါတယ္။ ယခုႏွစ္ ကမၻာ့လူဦးေရေန႔က ကိုင္ရိုညီလာခံမွာ ကတိက၀တ္ျပဳခဲ့တဲ့ မျပီးျပတ္ေသးဘဲ က်န္ရိွေနေသးတဲ့ လုပ္ငန္းေတြ ဆက္လက္ေဆာင္ရြက္ၾကဖို႔ ကမၻာတစ္၀ွမ္းသိရိွလာေအာင္ လံႈ႕ေဆာ္ထားပါတယ္။

တိုးတက္မႈအေနနဲ႔ မိခင္ေသဆံုးမႈႏွင့္ မရည္ရြယ္ဘဲကိုယ္၀န္ရရိွမႈေတြ က်ဆင္းသြားေသာ္လည္း  အျခားစိန္ေခၚ မႈေတြကေတာ့ ရိွေနဆဲပါ။ ကမၻာႏွင့္အ၀ွမ္းမွာကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ဟာ အမ်ိဳးသမီးအခြင့္အေရးႏွင့္မရိွမျဖစ္က်န္းမာေရး ေစာင့္ေရွာက္မႈေတြရရိွဖို႔ေဆာင္ရြက္ရာမွာ အတားအဆီးမ်ား ရိွေနဆဲပါ။ ကိုယ္၀န္ေဆာင္မႈႏွင့္ဆိုင္ေသာ အေရးကိစၥမ်ားသည္လည္း အသက္၁၅ ႏွစ္မွ ၁၉ႏွစ္အၾကား မိန္းကေလးငယ္  ေတြေသ ဆံုးမႈကိုအဓိက ျဖစ္ေစေသာ အေၾကာင္းျခင္းရာျဖစ္ေနဆဲပါ။ မညီမွ်မႈကို အေျချပဳျပီးေပၚေပါက္လာတဲ့ က်ား/မ အေျချပဳ အၾကမ္းဖက္မႈဟာလည္း စိုးထိတ္ဖြယ္ ဆက္လက္  ျဖစ္ပြားေနဆဲပါ။

ႏို္၀င္ဘာလမွာ ကိုင္ရိုညီလာခံ ႏွစ္ဆယ့္ငါးႏွစ္ျပည့္အခမ္းအနားကို ႏို္င္ရိုဘီတြင္ က်င္းပမွာျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ကၽြန္ေတာ့္အေနနဲ႔ အဖြဲ႕၀င္ႏိုင္ငံေတြကို အျမင့္ဆံုးအဆင့္အထိ စြမ္းစြမ္းတမံ ပိုမိုပါ၀င္လာျပီး ICPD ရဲ႕ ေရွ႕လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ေတြကို ပိုမိုနားလည္လာေစဖို႔ ခိုင္မာတဲ့ ႏို္င္ငံေရးႏွင့္ ဘ႑ာေငြေၾကးဆိုင္ရာကတိကတ္ေတြ ခ်မွတ္ေဆာင္ရြက္လာႏိုင္ေစရန္ အားေပးတိုက္တြန္းလိုပါတယ္။

ICPD ၏ေမွ်ာ္မွန္းခ်က္ေတြကို လက္ဆင့္ကမ္းေဖာ္ေဆာင္ရင္း ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔အားလံုး မည္သူတစ္ဦး တစ္ေယာက္မွ် မက်န္ရစ္ေစဘဲ ေရရွည္တည္တံ့ေသာ၊ မွ်တညီမွ်ေသာ၊ အားလံုးလႊမ္းျခံဳပါ၀င္သည့္ ဖြ႔ံျဖိဳး တိုးတက္ေရး လမ္းေၾကာင္းေပၚေရာက္ရိွေအာင္ အခြင့္အလမ္းေတြကို ရရိွအေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္ႏိုင္ မည္ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။




The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is the world’s blueprint for a better future for all on a healthy planet.  On World Population Day, we recognize that this mission is closely interrelated with demographic trends including population growth, ageing, migration and urbanization.

While the world’s population overall continues to increase, this growth is uneven. For many of the world’s least developed countries, the challenges to sustainable development are compounded by rapid population growth as well as vulnerability to climate change. Other countries are facing the challenge of ageing populations, including the need to promote healthy active ageing and to provide adequate social protection. As the world continues to urbanize, with 68% of the world population projected to live in urban areas by 2050, sustainable development and climate change will increasingly depend on the successful management of urban growth.

While managing these population trends, we must also recognize the relationship between population, development and individual well-being.  Twenty-five years ago, at the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), world leaders first spelt out the links between population, development and human rights, including reproductive rights. They also recognized that promoting gender equality is both the right thing to do and one of the most reliable pathways to sustainable development and improved well-being for all.

This year’s World Population Day calls for global attention to the unfinished business of the Cairo ICPD Conference.

Despite progress in lowering maternal mortality and unintended pregnancies, many challenges remain. Around the world, we are seeing pushback on women’s rights, including on essential health services.  Issues related to pregnancy are still the leading cause of death among girls aged 15 to 19. Gender-based violence, which is rooted in inequality, continues to take a horrific toll.

In November, a summit marking the 25th anniversary of the Cairo Conference will take place in Nairobi.  I encourage Member States to participate at the highest levels and to make firm political and financial commitments to realize the Programme of Action of the ICPD.

Carrying forward the vision of the ICPD will unlock opportunities for those left behind and help pave the way for sustainable, equitable and inclusive development for all.





20 June 2019

On World Refugee Day, my thoughts are with the more than 70 million women, children and men – refugees and internally displaced persons — who have been forced to flee war, conflict and persecution.

This is an astonishing number – twice what it was 20 years ago.

Most of the forcibly displaced came from just a handful of countries: Syria, Afghanistan, South Sudan, Myanmar and Somalia. In the past 18 months, millions more have fled Venezuela.

I want to recognize the humanity of countries that host refugees even as they struggle with their own economic challenges and security concerns.

We must match their hospitality with development and investment.

It is regrettable that their example is not followed by all.  We must re-establish the integrity of the international protection regime.

The Global Compact on Refugees, adopted last December, offers a blueprint for modern refugee response.

What refugees need most urgently is peace.

Millions of people around the world have joined UNHCR’s World Refugee Day campaign and are taking steps, big and small, in solidarity with refugees. Will you take a step with refugees too?

Thank you.




19 June 2019

 Sexual violence in conflict is a threat to our collective security and a stain on our common humanity.

It is used as a tactic of war, to terrorize people and to destabilize societies.

Its effects can echo across generations through trauma, stigma, poverty, long-term health issues and unwanted pregnancy.

On the International Day for the Elimination of Sexual Violence in Conflict, we must hear the survivors, and recognize their needs and demands.

They are mostly women and girls, but also men and boys, calling for our support to access life-saving health services, justice and reparation.

Today we also honor those working on the frontlines, directly assisting victims to rebuild their lives.

Our global response must include more concerted action to ensure accountability for the perpetrators – and to address the gender inequality that fuels these atrocities.

Together, we can and must replace impunity with justice; and indifference with action.

Thank you.